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the REPUBLIC 

of GUATEMALA 




Gustavo Niederlein 

CHIEF OP THE SCIENTIFIC DEPARTMENT 

THE PHILADELPHIA 
COMMERCIAL MUSEUM. 



EX LIBRIS 




C. W. 
ELMENHORST 



the REPUBLIC 

of GUATEMALA 




GUSTAVO NIEDERLEIN 



CHIEF OF THE SCIENTIFIC DEPARTMENT OF THE PHILADELPHIA MUSEUMS 



PHILADELPHIA 



THE PHILADELPHIA COMMERCIAL MUSEUM 



THE 

PHILADELPHIA MUSEUMS, 

Established by Ordinance of City Councils, 1894, 

233 South Fourth Street. 



BOARD OF TRUSTEES. 

Ex-Officio. 

HON. DANIEL H. HASTINGS, 
Governor of Pennsylvania. 

HON. CHARLES P. WARWICK, 
Mayor of the City of Philadelphia. 

JAMES L. MILES, 
President of Select Council. 

WENCEL HARTMAN, 
President of Common Council. 

SAMUEL B. HUEY. 
President of the Board of Public Education. 

DR. EDWARD BROOKS, 
Superintendent of Public Schools. 

NATHAN C. SCHABPFER, 

State Superintendent of Public Schools. 

J. T. ROTHROCK, B.S., M.D., 
State Forestry Commissioner. 

Permanent Trustees. 

WILLIAM PEPPER, M.D., LL.D., THOMAS MEEHAN, 

<3HARLES H. CRAMP, DANIEL BAUGH, 

THOMAS DOLAN, W. W. FOULKROD, 

GEORGE F. EDMUNDS, FRANK THOMSON, 

WILLIAM L. ELKINS, JOHN WANAMAKEB. 

MRS. CORNELIUS STEVENSON, Sc.D., P. A. B. WIDBNER, 

SIMON GRATZ. SYDNEY L. WRIGHT. 



OFFICERS 

OK I SI 

BOARD OF TRUSTEES. 

WM. PEPPER, M.D., LL.D., 
President. 

CHARLES H. CRAMP, 
Vice-President. 

SYDNEY L. WRIGHT, 
Treasurer. 

WILLIAM M. WATTS, 
Secretary. 



OFFICERS OF THE MUSEUM. 

WM. P. WILSON, Sc.D., 
Director. 

WILLIAM HARPER, 
Chief of the Bureau of Information. 

C. A. GREEN, 
Assistant Chief of the Bureau of Information. 

WILFRED H. SCHOFF, 
Fsrelgn Secretary of the Bureau of Information. 

GDSTAVB NIBDERLEIN, 
Chief of the Scientific Department. 

WM. B. MARSHALL, 
Curator of Natural Products. 

LOUIS .'- M 
Chief of Laboratories. 



Introduction. 

I HIS monograph treats of the topography, geology, 
mineral wealth and soils of Guatemala; it describes its 
climate; it details its flora and fauna with reference to their 
economic value; it displays the distribution of Guatemalan 
population according to race, wealth, communities and social 
conditions; it examines the agricultural development of the 
Republic including its live stock and forests; and, finally, it 
recounts the most important features of its commerce, in- 
dustry, finance, and of its economic and political conditions. 
It is made up of observations and studies pursued in 1897 
and 1898, during seven and a half months of economic and 
scientific explorations in Central America, and of compilations 
gathered with care from authoritative manuscripts, books and 
official documents and publications. Respect has been shown 
to the work of men of originality in research and thought, 
and care has been taken to adhere closely to the original text 
when either quoting or translating. 



The Republic of Guatemala* 



TOPOGRAPHY,. GEOLOGY, MINERAL WEALTH AND SOILS. 

Guatemala lies between 13 42' and iy° 19' northern lati- 
tude and between 88° 10' and 92 30' longitude, west of Green- 
wich. Its area is calculated to be 50,600 square miles, or about 
125,100 square kilometers. Its limits are bounded by Mexico, 
British Honduras, the Atlantic Ocean, State of Honduras, 
Salvador and the Pacific Ocean. The Atlantic coast is about 
185 kilometers long and the Pacific coast 260 kilometers. 

Guatemala has three great orographical zones, namely: 

1. A northern zone, which is relatively low, comprising 
the larger part of the Department of Peten. It consists of a 
series of elevations abundant in cones of denudation, attaining 
an altitude of 400 meters on the southeast of San Felipe, and 
of 500 on the south of Tenosigue. It is also interspersed 
with plains of small extent, so that it has a mountainous aspect, 
although there are no mountains of importance. 

2. A central zone, composed of mountain ranges, running 
generally from west to east, and divided into chains of cre- 
taceous and tertiary formations in the north, and chains of 
palaeozoic and archaic formations, which begin in the Depart- 



merit of Quiche, pass into Baja Verapaz and continue in the 
Sierras of Las Minas or del Mico. 

This zone has considerable elevation, rising in Los Altos 
Cuchumatanes (Department of Huehuetenango) to 3,800 
meters; in the mountains of Xucaneb (Department of Verapaz) 
2,550 m.; in the intermediary mountains of Pocolpa, or Chama, 
1,900 m.; in the mountains to the east of the Hacienda de 
San Vicente to 3,000 m., and in the mountains of San Gil, 
eastward of Izabal, to 2,000 m. All the mountains of Verapaz 
slope down toward the east. Only a small calcareous chain 
near Livingston, on the Gulf of Amatique, rises in another 
direction to a height of 350 meters. 

3. A southern zone, formed chiefly by eruptive mountain 
chains, which culminate in volcanoes like those of Tacana (4,150 
meters), Tajamulco (3,540 m.), Lacandon, Cerro Ouemado, 
Santa Maria, Zuhil, San Pedro, Atitlan, Toliman, Cerro de 
Oro, Acatenango (3,906 m.), Fuego (4.260 m.). Agua (4,120 
m.), Pacaya (basalt), Cerro Redondo (basalt), Tecuamburro, 
Jumaytepeque, Moyuta, Chingo, Amayo, Culma, Talmal, 
Suchitan (basalt), Itzetepeque (basalt), Papalcuapa (basalt), 
Monterico (basalt), Ipala (basalt), and Tumay. All volcanoes 
which are not formed of basalt are of andesite rock. This 
zone is generally called the Cordillera de los Andes, which 
runs through the country from northwest to southeast at a 
distance of from 50 to 80 km. from the Pacific Ocean, and has 
an average height of 1,950 meters. 

Another division of the mountain system of Guatemala 
is as follows: 

1. The Cordillera de los Andes, parallel with the Pacific 
Ocean. 

2. The Sierra Madre, beginning at the volcano of Tacana 
and following an irregular line through the Department of 
Huehuetenango, Totonicapan and Alta Verapaz, and project- 
ing through British Honduras to the Atlantic. 

3. The Sierra de Chama, a range of the Sierra Madre, 
which passes from Verapaz in a tortuous line toward the east. 

4. The Sierra de Santa Cruz, a range starting from the 
Sierra de Chama, following the direction of the Cahabon and 



Polochic Rivers, and continuing north of Lake Izabal until it 
disappears at the Gulf of Amatique. 

5. The Sierra de las Minas (or Mico Mountain), beginning 
north of Coban, running thence between the Polochic and 
Motagua Rivers, and south of Lake Izabal, and ending 
between the Bay of San Tomas and the Motagua near the 
Atlantic coast. 

6. The Sierra de Copan, a spur of the Cordilleras, crosses 
the Department of Santa Rosa, passes west of the lagoon of 
Ayarsa, rises again toward the north, makes a curve between 
the city of Esquipulas and the mines of Alotepeque, and 
stretches to the chain of mountains which separates Guatemala 
from Honduras. 

7. The mountains of Azulco, Conguaco and Moyuta, 
which form an isolated group of the Cordillera, culminating in 
the volcano of Tecuamburro. 

The principal river flowing to the Gulf of Mexico is the 
Usamacinta, and its affluents are the Rio de las Salinas, Rio 
de la Pasion and Rio Lacandon. After receiving the San 
Pedro this great river takes the name of Rio Tabasco in 
Mexico. 

To the Atlantic Ocean run the Rio Hondo and the Rio 
Belize. Into the Gulf of Honduras, which opens into the 
same ocean, empty the Rio Sarstoon and the Motagua, as well 
as the River Duke, the outlet of Lake Izabal, which on its 
part receives the Rio Polochic. 

Tributaries of the Pacific Ocean are the Rio de Paz, Rio 
de los Esclavos, Rio de Michatoya, Rio Guacalate, Rio Coya- 
late, Rio Patulul, Rio Nagualate, Rio Samala, Rio Tilapa, 
Rio Naranjo and Rio Suchiate. All of these have their origin 
in the Cordillera de los Andes or in the adjacent highlands. 
Only one river of all the Pacific tributaries is navigable. It is 
the Rio Michatoya, on which boats can ascend to its con- 
fluence with the Maria Linda. 

On the other hand, the Atlantic tributaries are nearly all 
navigable to a certain extent, as the Rio Usumacinta, the Rio 
de las Salinas, also called Rio Negro above a place known as 
Nueve Cerros; the Rio de la Pasion from its confluence with 
the Rio Chajmaita; the Rio Sarstoon, which is the boundary 



line between Belize and Guatemala below the rapids of Gracias 
a Dios; the Rio Polochic below Panzos; the Rio Motagua 
below Gualan, and the Rio Dulce, as well as Lake Izabal, 
through their entire extent. 

The principal lakes are: 

Ixabal 00 km (58 m.) long, 20 km. (12% m ) wide. 

Pet0n6Flores.. 48 •' (30m) ' 10 " ,6'4 m., 

Teracualp* 12 " <7%m) " 11 " I'm.) 

Ayarsa It " (7Sm) " 12 " ("Vi in ) " 

Atitlan 29 " (18m.) " 11 " '7m.) 

Amatitlan 12 " {VA m ) " 4 " (2% m.) " 

Oinja 25 " (12% m.) " 9 " (by, in.) " 

Of these there is steam navigation on Lakes Izabal, Atitlan 
and Amatitlan. 

The principal seaports are: 

ON THB ATLANTIC. 

I.iringBton, Puerto Barrios, Izabal and Santo Tomas. 

OH THE PACIFIC. 

San .losi', Champerico and Ocos. 

The river ports are: 

Iztapa, Tejorote, Gualan and Panzos. 

As already indicated, a great variety of characters is 
shown in the geological structure of Guatemala. In the first 
place, the Quaternary formation (alluvium and diluvium) 
covers most of the Pacific coast from the foot of the mountains 
to the sea. The same formation is also observed around 
Guatemala, Chimaltenango, Chimalapa, Chiquimula, Esqui- 
pulas, Jalapa, Pinula, Puerto Barrios, La Libertad, and in the 
valley of the Rio de la Pasion. 

The Tertiary formation, and especially limestone, covers 
nearly the entire Department of Peten. Besides, limestones 
and dolomites of the Upper Cretaceous age are observed from 
La Libertad and San Benito toward the Usumacinta River, and 
toward British Honduras, east of San Luis and Santa Barbara. 
The surroundings of San Luis and Santa Barbara are Tertiary 
limestone and sandstones of Eocene and Miocene aj 

The limestones and dolomites of the Upper Cretaceous 
age are also found in Alta Yerapaz, in the north of Izabal and 
in the north of Huehuetenango, mixed with Tertiary lime- 



stones and sandstones, and followed southward, first in Hue- 
huetenango, then in the north of Quiche a-nd in the south of 
Alta Verapaz, by conglomerates, dolomites and limestones of 
the Lower Cretaceous age, and again in the same departments 
further south, and in Baja Verapaz, with limestones and dolo- 
mites of the Upper Carboniferous age commingled with Santa 
Rosa strata (slate, sandstone, pudding stone and carboniferous 
graywacke), a formation which has also been found around 
Dolores and eastward of it toward Belen, in the Department of 
Peten, and again toward the north of Chiantla and toward the 
south of Cunen in Huehuetenango with pre-carboniferous 
limestone, also near Rabinal and Salama with crystalline lime- 
stone of the Azoic age. 

This Tertiary formation is followed, as already indi- 
cated in the orographical sketch, by an Azoic formation of 
gneiss, mica-slate and phylada, with large intrusions of 
granite, in the Department of Huehuetenango, Quiche, 
Baja Verapaz, Zacapa, the south of Izabal, in Chiquimula, 
Jalapa and Guatemala. Granite is further found in the north 
of Chicacao, around the lake and eastward of the volcano of 
Atitlan, between Totonicapan and Santa Cruz de Quiche, in 
Villamesa, Jutiapa, etc. 

A kind of hornblende slate has been observed in small 
spots in Izabal. Around Lake Izabal and along the River 
Motagua and northward of it, as also southward of Quasta- 
toya and northward of Cobulco and Rabinal, serpentine has 
been found. 

The eruptive formations which cover the rest of Guate- 
mala are composed of porphyry in the north of Guatemala, in 
the northwest of Jocotan and northwest of Zacapulas; of 
diorite in the southeast of Palmillo; of obsidian in the north- 
east of Guatemala; of rhyolite and dacite in Olopa, Jocotan, 
southward of Cuajiniquilapa and northeastward of Guatemala; 
and of trachyte, together with basalt, rhyolite, obsidian and 
granite in the northeast of Guatemala, northward and north- 
westward of Santa Cruz de Quiche, northward of Zacapulas 
and southward of Izabal. 

The eruptive formations are further composed of basalt 
in the volcanoes of Pacaya, Cerro Redondo, Chingo, Suchitan, 



Iztepeque, Ipala and Monterico, also around Jerez, Que- 
zaltepeque, Ipala, Concepcion, Santa Catarina, Mita and Chi- 
quimula; and finally, mostly of andesite in all the rest of the 
Cordillera and the highlands, as in Tacana, Tejutla, San 
Marcos, Ostuncalco, Quezaltenango, Totonicapan, Solola, San 
Lucas, Atitlau, Santa Cruz Quiche, Patzum, Patzizia, Antigua, 
Amatitlan, Mataesquintla, Cuajiniquilapa, Moyata, Jolote- 
peque, etc. 

The following mineral products have been found, de- 
monstrating that Guatemala may also have a promising future 
development in this line, owing to the varied geological forma- 
tions just described: 

Quartz and gold in Cobulco, Choi, Rabinal and Salama 
in Baja Verapaz; in Palencia, Chiquin and Sanarate in the De- 
partment of Guatemala; in Jalapa and Zacapa. 

Silver and galenas in San Lorenzo, San Juan Sacate- 
pequez, Chinantla, San Antonio, San Pedro Yampue and 
Petapa in the Department of Guatemala; in Rabinal and Cu- 
bulco in Baja Verapaz; in Chimaltenango; Jalapa; Chiquimula 
(Alotepeque, Concepcion and Esquimulas); Santa Rosa; Hue- 
huctcnango and Quezaltenango. 

Copper in Chinantla, Trapiche Grande, San Buenaven- 
tura, San Juan Sacatepeque, Palencia and Sanarate in the 
Department of Guatemala; in Rabinal and Cubulco in Baja 
Verapaz; Amatitlan; Jalapa and Zacapa. 

Coal and lignite in Chinantla, Palencia and Sanarate in 
Guatemala; San Martin in Chimaltenango; Santa Rosa; 
Jalapa; Izabal; and Cerro Gilnear, Livingston, and Coban in 
Alta Verapaz. 

Manganese in Jutiapa. 

Asbestos in Salama and Cubulco in Baja Verapaz. 
raphite in Totonicapan, Huehuetenango, and in Cubulco 
and Rabinal in Baja Verapaz. 

Kaolin in I 'inula, Mixco, San Juan Sacatepequez, San 
Antonio and Chinantla in Guatemala; Amatitlan; Santa Rosa. 
Is in Chiquimula. 

Slate in Salama, San Antonio, Chiquin, and Huehue- 
tenango. 

Alum in Jutiapa and 1 Iiuhuetcnango. 



Marble in San Jose de Buenavista, Salama and Totoni- 
capan. 

There is no doubt that regions with porphyry, trachyte, 
basalt, rhyolite, obsidian, gneiss, andesite and granite com- 
bined, as found north-northeastward of the city of Guatemala, 
around Chiquimula, Jocotan and Olopa, southward from Za- 
capa, northward from Quezaltepeque, around Zacapulas and 
Santa Magdalena, between Uspantan and San Andres, must 
be rich in minerals, as similar regions are in other parts of the 
world. Valuable mines might also be found in the Sierra 
de las Minas and in the Sierra de le Grita, as well as in the 
Sierra del Espiritu Santo. 

Soils. The character of the soils of Guatemala are, as 
everywhere else, dependent on the surrounding geological 
formations, with reference to which the following brief list, 
taken from the highly interesting maps of Dr. Carlos Sapper, 
is given: 

1. Alluvial soils. These are found along the Atlantic 
Ocean, in the lower valley of the Motagua River, in that of the 
Rio Dulce and in the lower part of that of the Rio Polochic, 
as well as in the lower region of the Rio de la Pasion and in 
the Salinas or Negro river. 

2. Mixed alluvial and volcanic soils. These soils cover 
all the lands from the foot of the Cordillera to the Pacific 
Ocean, also the valley of the Motagua River from Gualan 
upward to Morazan, and the surroundings of Salama, San 
Geronimo, Rabinal, Cobulco, Zacapulco, Chiquimula, Jilo- 
tepeque, Pinula, Santa Catarina, Jutiapa, Esquipulas and 
Jalapa. 

3. Volcanic soils. These soils cover the lands between 
Guatemala and Amatitlan, the surroundings of Chimaltenango 
and of Quezaltenango and the land south of the lake of 
Atitlan. 

4. Mixed eluvial and volcanic soils. These soils pre- 
dominate in the region of the volcanoes which form a long 
chain along the Pacific Ocean, 50 to 80 km. distant from the 
Cordillera de los Andes. Also the southern part of the adja- 
cent highlands, called "Mesa central," are covered with these 
mixed volcanic and eluvial soils, mostly of andesite origin; 

13 



as, for instance, the lands of Tacana, Momostenango, San 
Marcos, San Francisco, Totonicapan, Mazatenango, Solola, 
Santa Cruz Quiche, Tecpan, Pacicia, Patulul, Antigua, San 
Antonio, Palencia, Sampaquisoy, Mataquescuintla, Barberena, 
Cuajiniquilapa, Chiquimulilla, Jalpatagua, Comapa and Yu- 
piltepeque. 

5. Changed or replaced soils. These soils of different 
geological origin are found in the northern part of the "Mesa 
Central," in a long strip, bounded by Momostenango, San Jose, 
San Antonio, Jalapa and Santa Catarina toward the south; 
and Quilco, Huehuetenango, Uspanton, San Cristobal and the 
foothills of the Sierra de las Minas toward the north. Besides 
the already named municipalities, the following have the same 
soil: San Martin, Jogabaj, Canoas, Sanarate, Guastatoya, 
Jocotan, Gualan and Palmillo. 

6. Lateritc clay. This heavy soil predominates in the 
high regions, especially in the Sierra Madre 6 Altos Cuchu- 
matanas, around the municipalities of San Mateo, Santa 
Eulalia, Salama, Ixcoy, Todos Santos, Nebaj, Chajut, Cozal, 
Cunen, Uspantan and Chicanan. 

7. Lateritc in decomposition. This reddish soil is found 
in the Sierras de las Minas, del Mico, de la Grita and 
Espiritu Santo, and in Merendon; also in the mountains north 
of Lake Izabal, around Olapa, Coyante, Teleman, and north 
of Santa Cruz de Quiche. 

8. Lateritc residua. Nearly all the Department of Peten 
is covered with this fertile soil, as is also a great part of 
the Departments of Izabal, Alta Verapaz and Huehuetenango 
in the north. 

9. Lateritc in transformation. This soil is found in spots 
in the mountains of Chamas and Santa Cruz, in the region 
of the Sarstoon and Pasion Rivers, around Lanquin, Cahabon, 
San Luis and Dolores in Peten. 



14 



II. 



CLIMATE. 



The people of Guatemala distinguish three zones, called 
Tierra calientc (hot region), Tier r a templada (temperate region) 
and Tierra -fria (cold region), and two seasons, the moist or 
humid, called invierno or winter, and a dry one, called verano 
or summer. 

The tierra calieritc comprises the coast lands of the 
Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. 

Tlie tierra templada, or temperate zone, is found on 
the highlands or mesetas centrales, from 2,000 to 5,000 feet 
above the sea level. 

TJie tierra fria, or cold zone, is situated above the eleva- 
tion of 5,000 feet, and especially in the Departments of Solola, 
Totonicapan, Quiche, Huehuetenango, Quezaltenango and 
San Marcos, regions known under the name of Los Altos. 

TJie rainy season begins in May and lasts until October 
in the interior, and until December along the coasts. 

The hottest months are March and April, the coldest 
December and January. 

Going more into details, Guatemala lies entirely in the 
torrid zone. Stretched out between two oceans not far from 
each other, the climate would be uniformly hot and moist but 
for her varied mountains, especially the Cordilleras de los Andes, 
which oppose themselves to the prevailing winds, causing 
notable differences not only in temperature, but also in rain- 

15 



falls, humidity of the air, clouds and other meteorological 
phenomena. 

The predominant winds are from the east and north. 
Only along the Pacific coast and on the southern slopes of 
the southern Cordillera southern and southwestern winds are 
frequent at certain times of the year. But it is also true that 
the different mountains often modify locally the direction of 
the winds. 

The curves of atmospheric pressure are very slight. As 
in the territory of Guatemala the sun passes twice a year to 
the zenith of each locality, so the temperature is higher at those 
times (April, May and August) than in the intermediary 
periods (July, December and January). The daily course of 
temperature is generally simple, although clouds and winds 
cause irregularities. The minimum is observed at sunrise and 
the maximum between two and three o'clock in the afternoon. 

Dr. Carlos Sapper gives the following table of average 
centigrade temperatures : 



'5 S • 

» — J3 



& 6 



•/; o 



Puerto Barrios.. 

Salain.'i 

L'ampur 

Chiniax 

Guatemala 

Queialtenango . 



2 in 23U 24 ••MV-'i; 1 .; 27% 29% H 
920 " 20 ' '-'I 23' , 2M 4 If,'.: 'J.V., 'Jl : 4 -ZWi 
YM \9\i mi -1/4 28 " 22 ' 2J 
1,306 " 1«% UVi 18'., 19'-., L'n l'j-'., 19! i 
M*.", '< in " 17'., 18% 19>2 mi 19 

2,860 " io^ n% isjj ir>^ it 16J* 16 16$| 



■jt;' 4 n 
■2i 21k 

W>4 Mi 

18U 18 

isy, i5h 



26%'2S?* 

I6>|l6 
1«K 16« 



Dr. Sapper estimates that for each ioo meters of elevation 
the temperature is diminished by one-half of a centigrade de- 
gree. Naturally, clouds, rainfalls and high winds modify the 
regularity of temperature. 

The atmospheric humidity is high all over the country, 
except in the dry regions situated between humid or moist 
mountains, as, for instance, in Salama and in the valley of the 
Motagua River. Its maximum is about sunrise, and the mini- 
mum between two and three o'clock in the afternoon, depend- 
ing upon the temperature. Electric phenomena, the direction 
of the winds and also the vegetation sensibly modify the sat- 
uration of the air. Thunderstorms are frequent from May to 



1 6 



September, but seldom occur during other parts of the year. 
They come on mostly in the afternoon between half-past two 
and half-past six o'clock. 

In regard to rainfall, it is a general rule that regions con- 
fronting moist winds from the ocean have an abundant pre- 
cipitation, and that regions defended by mountain ranges front 
the incursion of sea winds are dry. Guatemala, having a com- 
plicated topographical configuration, has for this reason great 
varieties of rainfall in different parts of the country. 

Nearly all the curves of rainfall present two maxima, both 
occurring a little after the sun has passed the zenith of each 
locality — that is, in June or July and in September. Some 
places in the north show a third maximum, and other places, 
such as Senahu, only one, which comes in August. 

Dr. Sapper observed in Alta Verapaz and along the At- 
lantic coast a considerable rainfall distributed throughout the 
year, a little heavier in October and December, and less from 
January to April. In Los Altos, known as Costa Cuca, he 
found the rainfall very heavy, and occurring mostly from April, 
to October. 

Further north, in Quezaltenango and in Salama, he ob- 
served less precipitation, and it occurred mostly from May to> 
September. After that time there followed a long dry season. 

In the City of Guatemala and surrounding highlands he 
noted a dry season quite as long and as well pronounced, but 
the total amount of rainfall was considerably larger, the moist, 
winds from the Pacific having freer access to these localities. 

More particulars are found in the following table of aver- 
age rainfall in millimeters for different retrions: 



•50 Jl 






1 


3. 
< 


>. 

r. 


s 3 

1-5 1 ""J 


■4 







> 


2 m 


110 


165 


BE 


1.-5 


100 820 500 


490 


■:mi 


it 11 


480 


R00 " 


180 


210 


12.) 


70 


200 880 520 


800 


(510 


.".'in 


100 


720 " 


470 


800 


270 


70 


>20 820 


500 


180 


820 




920 " 














90 ISO 100 


70 


no 


20 




goo " 


180 


100 


80 


105 


500 820 


580 


150 




ion 


1,000 " 




00 


1(H) 


216 


I7H 




540 


480 




1,8118 " 


140 


110 


too 


60 


200 820 810 


210 


240 


260 


210 


1,485 " 


10 


8 


5 


20 


75 1 0> 280 276 


225 


226 


180 


2,S£0 " 











■' 


<jii 11; 1 100 76 
1 1 


120 


73 





Puerto liiirrios. . 

Cubilguitz 

Betel 

Salama 

Senahti 

Las Mercedes.... 

Cliimax 

Guatemala 

Quezaltenango. . 



24 ' 

280 

120 



115 

80 

17ii 

15 

10 



17 



Hail seldom falls in the Republic of Guatemala; frosts 
have been observed only in regions above 1,800 meters eleva- 
tion, and snow has only been seen in regions above 3.100 me- 
ters. The climate, taken all in all. is healthy. Fevers are con- 
fined to the const lands, which are verv warm ami mo 









III. 



CHARACTER OF VEGETATION. 



The vegetation of Guatemala, as Mr. Hemsley savs, is 
probably as varied as that of Southern Mexico, but there are 
no large desert tracts, as in Northern Mexico. 

The main mountain chain is an extension of that of Chia- 
pas, Mexico, and attains its greatest elevation in Quezal- 
tenango, Chimaltenango and Guatemala, where it consists of 
upland plains stretching away to the north, surrounded by 
high hills and with the outline broken on the Pacific side by 
volcanoes. These highland plains are, for the most part, com- 
paratively free from the denser growth of trees, and are, where 
not under cultivation, covered with grass upon which sheep 
and cattle graze. The surrounding hills are clothed with 
pines and oaks to an elevation of 10,000 to 11,000 feet, but 
they are mostly of low growth. 

A dense forest covers the slopes of the Cordillera toward 
the Pacific from an elevation of from 5,000 to 6,000 feet, and 
this blends with the lowland forests, which are denser and less 
broken at the foot of the Cordillera, but toward the ocean 
shore they are interspersed with palms and other trees, or 
with open stretches of rank grass. 

A long, narrow mountain ridge leaves the Cordillera not 
far from Totonicapan, and at first forms the watershed between 
the Rio Negro (Chisoy or Salinas) and Motagua. 

Then it divides, one branch separating the Motagua and 

19 



the Polochic valleys, the other the Polochic and the waters of 
the Rio Negro i>r Salinas and the Rio de La Pasion. 

The upper part of the valley of Motagua consists of plains 
covered chiefly with oaks and pines, the former loaded with 
orchids and Bromeliacea (including TiUandsia usneoides). 

Lower down the valley contracts, and its sides are cov- 
ered with a shrubby forest mingled with pines, but the higher 
slopes are clothed with oaks, which are also loaded with 77/- 
landsia and orchids, such as Oncidium, Epidendrum, Pleurothal- 
lis and others. 

The hills then recede, and the valley expands into open 
and comparatively barren plains covered with Mimosae and 
Cacti. 

This vegetation is again succeeded rather suddenly be- 
tween Zacapa and Gualan by rich virgin forests, and these con- 
tinue to the Atlantic. 

The valleys of the Polochic and Cahabon Rivers take their 
rise in Alta Yerapaz, in a rainy, district covered with dense 
vegetation, a large portion of which is under cultivation. The 
ancient forests have for the most part given place to a second 
growth of woods, which are cut and burnt from time to time 
for plantations of Indian corn, sugar, coffee, etc. 

In these valleys are also patches of fine forests, occupying 
the spurs of the chains of mountains bounding and dividing 
the valleys on either side. 

In the neighborhood of Cahabon the vegetation is more 
scanty, and open grassy plains occur. 

A few leagues above the junction of the Polochic and 
Cahabon Rivers, between Teleman and Panzos, the virgin 
forest is entered, and this, as in the Motagua valley, continues 
to the sea, covering the whole country around Lake Izabal 
and along the banks of the Rio Dulcc. 

The high ridge bounding the valley of the Cahabon on the 
north is clothed with virgin forests nearly to its summit, and 
these spread continuously northward without interruption to 
the borders of the Department of Peten. Pine clad ridges 
form the divides between the riv> 

Perhaps the largest unbroken forest in the whole of Gua- 
temala extends from northern Alta Verapa/. into Peten. 



In order to give some idea of the phyto-geographical 
range of vegetation, let us observe the highest volcanoes, the 
Volcan de Fuego (4,260 m.) and the Volcan de Agua (4,120 
m.) as types. Mr. Hemsley, whose very trustworthy descrip- 
tion is here reproduced, and which accords with the author's 
own observation, says of the Volcan de Agua that its peak is 
clothed with grass and a few pines, together with the Alpine 
shrubs, vaccinese, lupinus, etc. ; while the top of the Volcan de 
Fuego is nearly barren, a few ferns, lycopods, etc., only having 
fixed themselves in the crevices of rocks. 

Lower down on both volcanoes the pine trees become 
larger and more numerous, but entirely cease at an elevation 
of 10,200 feet, giving place to a dense mixed forest. Large 
evergreen oaks are prevalent at an elevation of from 7,000 to 
8,000 feet. From this altitude down the virgin forest has 
been destroyed, to be succeeded by sugar fields and Indian 
corn patches, and still further down by coffee plantations in 
terspersed among woods of second growth. 

In order to characterize the vegetation of the Republic of 
Guatemala in a few words, we may distinguish with Dr. 
Sapper : 

1 . Litoral forests in a narrow belt along the Pacific and 
• Atlantic coast. 

2. Moist or humid forests oj the tierra ealientc (hot zone) 
mixed with savannas (prairie fields) which cover all the plains 
from the foot of the Cordillera de los Andes to the Pacific 
Ocean. 

3. Moist or humid forests of the tierra caliente (hot zone) 
and tierra templada (temperate zone), found along the foothills 
of the volcanic chain of the Cordillera de los Andes, and in 
the northern and eastern part of the Republic of Guatemala, as 
-described above. 

4. Moist or humid forests of the tierra fria (cold zone), pre- 
dominating in the Altos Cuchumatanes. 

5. Pinares and roblarcs (pine and oak forests), of the tierra 
caliente, tierra templada and tierra fria, found in the upland 
plains (mesetas centrales), covering considerable expanses and 
mixed with : 



Savannas with Chaparrales (small trees ami bushes of 
Mimoseu, Euphorbiacea, etc.), characteristic of the upland 
plains and dry regions. 

7. Savannas with pines, along the Golfo Dulce (Atlantic 
coast lands). 

8. Savannas of the tierra fria, on the highest table-lands 
of the mountains. 

The vegetation of Guatemala is very rich in economic 
plants. My list of woods exceeds the number of 400 different 
species ; 339 are contained in my list of medicinal plants. 
There are 7 different kinds of rubber trees, about a dozen 
fibre plants, over 50 gums and resins, a great number of tan- 
ning and dye woods, a very great number of fruit trees, many 
oil plants, 1 wax plant ( Virola sebifera Aubl.), numerous 
aromatic and perfume producing plants, spices, balsams, starch 
yielding roots, etc. 

Among the woods figure in first place the caoba (Szcie tenia 
Mahagoni Z..),cedro (Cedrela odorata L .) , guayacau (Gitayacum 
officinale L.) , mora ( Chlorophora tinctorial*. Gaud. ) , guachipilin 
(Pilhccolobi/on), rouron (Parinarium guianensis), madre 
cacao (Gliricidea) , ebano (Brya ebanus L. \_DC.~\ ), laurel (Nec- 
tandra), cortez {Tabcbuia Donnd Smithia Rose), chico zapote 
(Achras capote L.) , balsamo {Myroxylori), cipres (Cupressus) , 
cedro bianco (Bu/scra), cenisero (Pithecolobium Samah 
Benth.), culebro ( Terminalia), encino (Quercus), guajo (Leu- 
cctna esculenta Benth.), guauacaste (Enterolobium eyclocarpum 

. iscanal (Mimosa, sp?s, mangle (Rhizophora Mangle L. '), 
nacascalote (Caesalpinia coriaria Wi//d.), palojiote [Bur sera' 
Simaruba (L.) Sarg.), pino bianco (Abies rcligiosa Linden i, 
also called pinabete, pino Colorado (Finns), roble (Quercus), 
tasisco (Pe> \ nicnium Turckheimii Klatt.), taray (Eysenhardtia 
amorphoides 11. B. K. ) , tepeguaje (Lysiloma acapulcensis Benth . ) , 
zapotillo {Vitellaria mammosa (L.) Radlk. ), etc. 

These medicinal plants take a first rank : 

Zarzaparilla (Smilax officinalis, L. ), guaco (An'stolochia) , 
quina 1 Cinchona i, michoacan (Exogonium Purga I Wender) 
Benth). liquidambar (Liquidambar macrophylla OersC), u- de 
limon (Andropogori), copalchi 1 Croton niveus /acq.), calagula 
( I'oh podium), contrayerba (Dorstenia Contrayerva L.)% casca- 



rilla (Croton flavens L.), copal (Tetragastris bahamifera (Sw.) 
(). K'tze.), doradilla (Adianlum), etc. 

The principal rubber tree is the Castilloa elastica Cerv. , 
locally called " hule." Other milk producing trees are a 
number of Ficus, as the amate, mastate, higuera, etc., a 
number of Eiiphorbiacccc , Apocynacete, Asclcpiadacca- , Sapota- 
cea: and species of Brosimum (milk tree), Artocarpus (bread 
tree), Carica (melon tree), Hura, etc. 

The most important fibre plants are : the Carludovica 
palmata Ruiz et Pav., of the leaves of which the so-called 
Panama hats are made, the palma real (Oreodoxa oleracea 
Marl.), also used for hats, the fibres of coyol (Acrocomia vini- 
fera Oerst.), maguey and henequeu {Agave), pita floja (Four- 
croya gigantea Vent.), piiiuela (Bromelia pinguin L.), escobilla 
(Abulilo?i indicum Sw. ) , silk, cottons (Bombax Ceiba and Ochroma 
(agopus), white and brown cottons (Gossypium barbadense,) 
bast {Castilloa elastica, Cevd ; Guazuma it! mi folia Lam.), etc. 

Among the balsams, gums and resins are prominent the 
balsams of Liquidambar macrophylla Oerst., Myroxylon sp., the 
resins and turpentines of pines (Pinus), the gums of cachito 
(Acacia Farncsiana Willd.), icanal (Mimosa), espino bianco 
(Prosopis), guahacaste (Enterolobium cyclocarpuni Gr.), the 
resins of copinol or guapinol (Hymenaca courbaril L.), cedro 
(Bursera), jiote (Bursera simaruba (L.) Sarg.), jocote (Spoti- 
dias dulcis Forsk.), jobo (Spondias lutea L.), mangle (Rhizo- 
phora ■ Mangle L.), guacacan (Guajacum officinale L.), espino 
negro (Acacia sp.), etc. 

The best tannings are the barks of encina and roble 
(species of Quercus) , mangle (Rhizophora Majigle L.), guana- 
caste (Enterolobium cyclocarpum Grisb.), and the fruits of 
iiacascolote (Caesalpinia coriaria Willd.) 

Tinctorial plants are, in the first place, the indigo or anil 
(Indigofera anil L.), then the achiote (Bixa ordlena L.), the 
camotillo (Curcuma longa Roxb.), the wood of campeche 
(JLematoxylon campechianum L.), of brazil (Caesalpinia sp.), 
of mora (Chlorophora tinctoria) , sacatinta (DiclipLra I'a/iliaua 
JVees.), the fruits of nacascolote (Caesalpinia coriaria Willd.), 
etc. 

Among the oil fruits and oil seeds may be mentioned the 

23 



corozo (Attalea cohuru Marl.), the coyol (Acrocomia vinifera 
Mart.) t coco (Cocos nucifera), and the cultivated seeds of 
Ricinus communis /,., Arachis liypogaca L., Jatropha curcas P., 
Sesamum indicum P., Linum usilalissimum P., Prassica 
oleracea P. , etc. 

Fruit trees and plants are the orange, lemon and other spe- 
cies of Citrus, the aguacate (Persea gratissinia P.), the anona 
( Anona squamosa P. , Anona reticulata L .), the chirimoya (Anona 
cheritnolia Mill.), the chico zapote (Achras sapota P.), guana- 
vana or guanava (Anona muricata P.), mamey {Mammca ameri- 
cana P.), Mango (Mangifera indiea P.), maranon (Anacardium 
occidentale P.), jocote (Spondias), Manzana de Rosa (Jambosa 
Caryophyllus (Spr. Ndz.), cainito (Chrysophyllum cainito P.), 
guayaba (Psidium guayva Raddi), icaco (C/irysobalanus icaco 
P.), sonsapote (Mangifera indiea P.), palo de pan (Artocarpus 
incisa L.), higo (Ficus earica P.,) papaya (Carica papaya /.. >, 
nance (J/alpig/iia parvifolia A. fuss.), coco (Cocos nucifera P.), 
cacao (Thcobroma Cacao P.), granadilla (Passijlora sp.), etc., 
not counting a variety of bananas (Musa) and other cultivated 
plants, like pine apples, coffee, etc. 

The best aromatic plant is the vanilla (Vanilla planifolia, 
Andr.), but there are a very great number of aromatic barks 
dike canelo, palo de anis, balsamo), aromatic woods, aromatic 
flowers, aromatic seeds, etc., as well as all kinds of spices. 

The principal roots or tubers are the yucca (Manihot aipi, 
Pohi), the name (Dioscorca alata L.), camote 6 batata dulce 
(Iponuva batatas Lam., or sweet potato), el quiquisque (Colo- 
casia antiquorum Schott.) and the potato (Solatium tuberos- 
um L.). 

Nearly every plant can be cultivated in the territory of 
Guatemala, but as all the plants depend upon a certain average 
temperature, the following list is given of the altitudes and 
centigrade temperatures suited t<> the more important com- 
mercial plants: 



Altitude in 
Meters. 



Average Temperature 



Coffee 

Cacao 

Rubber or hule .... 

Coeoanut 

Indigo or anil ... 

Kice 

Corozo [Attalta eohuna) 
( !aoba ami cedro ... 

Liquidambar 

Chicosapote 

Oreodoxa oleracea. . . 

Gnayabo 

Coyol (palm) 

Chile (Capsicum). ... 



Sugar cane 

Cotton 

Ananas (pine apple) 

Tobacco 



330 to 
0" 
0" 
" 
0" 
0" 
0" 
0'' 

800" 
0" 
0" 
0" 
0" 
0" 

0' 

0' 
0' 



15)0-1800 

500- 900 

400 
1200 

700 
1000 

600 

*00 
1900 

900 
1200 
17i)0 
1800 
1700 

1600-1900 
1400 
1400 
1800 



Tierra caliente, Tierra templada, 



23°-26°C. 



17--2>; ; C. 



Tierra fria inferior 
10°-17 C. 



Yucca (ilaniiiot aipi 

Pohl) 

Banana (Mum) 

Aguacate (Persea). . . 

Oranges 

Pearlies 

Apples 

Barley 

Beans 

Indian corn 

Potatoes 

Wheat 



Maguey {Agave) 

Pinabete 

{Abie" reliffiosa) 

Isolated dicotyledonous 
tries 

Coniferous forests and 
vaccinia; 

Isolated pines 



0' 

o- 

0' 

0' 

1800' 

1800' 

1450 ' 

(l ' 

o • 

0' 

1800' 

0' 

2400' 



1S00 
191X1 
1950 
2100 
2450 
2500 
3900 
3000 
3100 
3100 
3150 

3400 

3500' 



.3S00 

.4000 



Tierra fria, 
10°C. 



The following pages give a complete list of the native 
names of the woods and medicinal plants. 



Native Names of the Woods of Guatemala. 



Abeto. 


Anison. 


Beyoton 




Acaal. 


Auono. 


r.iiin. 




Acacia. 


Ansul. 


Bits. 




Aceituno. 


Aralum. 


Bojon. 




Aguacate 


Aripin. 


Bolador. 




Aguacate cimnrron. 


Aripin Colorado. 


Brazil. 




Aguacate de mico. 


Aripin negro. 


Brauion. 




Alamo. 


Arrayan. 


Bronzou 


o jobillo. 


Aluod-n. 


Asta. 


Bucute. 




Algodoncillo. 


Ausup. 


Buente. 


• 


Aliso. 


Aya. 


Buluchfi, 




Aliso bianco. 




Burriou. 




Aliso Colorado. 


Bacho. 






Almcndro. 


Bacutzun, 


Cabahue 


or calabne. 


Ama. 


Balsamo. 


• Cabo de 


bucha. 


Amate. 


Baquelman. 






Atuate bianco. 


Bejuco de cruz. 







Cacho. 


Chlllmate. 


Bspino Jlote. 


Cachllote. 


Chile. 


Estoraque. 


Cacho do venado. 


Cbilindron. 


Eucalj pi... 


Cacoc. 


Chllique bianco. 




CaJmlto. 


ChilonchO. 


Flor blanca. 


Caimito ciinarron. 


Chlmon. 


Plor mala. 


CaJ. 


China, i.-. 


Frijol. 


Caietlllo. 


Chintoc. 


Fruta de cabro. 


Caleto. 


Chlntoox bianco. 


Fustic. 


Cajon. 


( hipilin. 




Cagagnance. 


Chiquey. 


Gamnsa. 


Calagua. 


Cbocboc. 


Gorda. 


Calote. 


Chocon. 


Gramlan. 


Canaje. 


Chololte. 


Granadillo. 


Camasul. 


Chonilli. 


c.uachipilin. 


Caruello. 


Chontat. 


Guacblpilin de mon- 


Caniey. 


Chonto. 


tafia. 


Campanlllo. 


Cnorreado. 


Guachipilin d«' tope. 


Canac. 


Chucon or Chocon. 


Guacimo. 


Cafiafistola. 


Cbucun. 


Guaco. 


Canal. 


Chulte. 


Guacuco. 


Canasti'. 


Cipres. 


Quale or i . 


( anelillo. 


Cupulpon. 


Guajilote. 


Candelillo. 


Clracll. 


Guama. 


Canelo. 


Cirlcote. 


Guanacaste. 


Canjan or canxan 


Clya. 


Cuapinol. 


or cansban. 


Clusero. 


Gnarumo. 


Canoj. 


Cocomatillo. 


Guayabillo. 


Cante. 


Coeoyol. 


Guayabillo del 


Canton ron. 


Col 


monte. 


Cantote. 


Cola de Mnerta. 


Guayacan. 


Caoba. 


Cola de Nabo. 


Gnayacanclllo. 


Capaton. 


Cola de pavo. 


Guayavo. 


Capeta. 


Colay. 


Guelleno. 


Capote. 


Copalchi. 


Gnlclcll. 


Capoton. 


Comaste. 


Guchila. 


Capulin. 


Conac. 


Guilihuistc. 


Care. 


Copac. 


Guilon. 


Carezo. 


Copal de zope. 


Guite. 


Carreto. 


Copo copinol. 




Carreto cbino. 


Cordoncillo. 


ITamacuvo. 


Cnscamite. 


Corona. 


Higo. 


Casta fib. 


Corozo. 


Hi In mo. 


Catecay. 


Cortez. 


Hococbinol. 


Cedazo. 


Corteza bianco. 


Hormigo. 


Cedrlllo. 


(orteza de ticrra 


Hormlgulllo. 


Cedro bianco. 


fria. 


Httanacaate. 


Cedro de la costa. 


Cortez negro. 


Iluacml. 


Cedro de montaua. 


Croton. 


lluano. 


Cedron. 


Croseto. 


Huco. 


Cenieero. 


Cualius. 


Hues! to. 


Cerezo. 


Cuapinol. 


Hnilacuc. 


Ctaacaj. 


Cuerufh. 


HnllihnUte. 


('hacole. 


i uduch. 


lluisisil. 


Chacanchc. 


Culan. 


Unite. 


Chartecoc. 


• ulcbro. 


Huiton. 


Chain m. 


< 'mniiscub. 


Hole 


'haltccoco. 


Curaiia. 




i !hampac. 




loan. 


Cbanupo. 


Dnranio. 


llamo. 


Chaparro. 


Ihirazno. 


llamo lilnnr-o. 


• rno. 


Durasnlllo. 


llamo Colorado. 


i no bianco. 


DomcbaL 


llamo macbo. 


Chote. 




llamo tcrno. 


^mo. 


ina 


Iqnli 


Chattermmch. 


Ebano del monte. 


Irayol. 


< Ihecken. 




iMiimnl. 


chlcblpfit<\ 


[no. 


Ixgnacbfc 

Ixlan. 


Chlchlque. 


• i bianco. 


< hlokarro. 


Bnclno Colorado. 




Chlco. 


no negro. 


Jablllo. 


fhloo de rnontafia. 




.l.il.ln. 


Chlco 7 


•billo. 


Jabonclllo. 



arj 



Native Name 


s of Woods of Guatemala — Continued. 


Jalteyupe. 


Mitilisque. 


I'icb. 


Jesmo. 


Morillo. 


Perata. 


Jicaro. 


Mora. 


Pixoy. 


Jii. 


Moracarey. 


Pichol. 


Jiote. 


Mora clavo. 


Plomillo. 


Jobo. 


Mora espino. 


Plumejillo. 


Jobillo or bronzon. 


Mora cashu. 


Pleinillo. 


Jocote. 


Moral. 


Poshte. 


Jocote dulce. 


Mono. 


Puxch§. 


Jocote de fraile. 


Moracaray. 


Puntero. 


Jocote de rnico. 


Mosote. 




Jocotin. 


Muxte. 


Quiebrahacha. 


Jojonte. 


Mulato. 


Quita carnisas. 


Jolol. 


Muyloco. 


Quina roja. 


Jubu. 




Quina. 


Jubun. 


Naba. 


Quijinicuil. 


Juju. 


Nance. 


Quinocchfi. 


Jupuyulo. 


Xavanchfi. 




Jusisco. 


Naranjo. 


Raixchec. 




Nacascalote. 


Kayan. 


Kant§. 


Naranjillo. 
Napotuite. 
Nispero. 
Niquidala. 


Retamo de castilla. 


Kogl. 


Retamo silvestre. 
Roble amargo. 


Lagarto. 


Roble. 


Laurel. 




Roble negro. 


Laurel mensado. 




Roble alazan. 


Lanelillo. 


OcantS. 

Ocansin. 

Ocancoj. 


Roble de montaOa. 


Leche auiarillo. 


Roble de tierra cal- 


Lecbe de maria. 


iente. 


Lecbe bianco. 


Roble bianco. 


Leche de vaca. 


Oconsagul. 

Olivo. 

Oljuche. 


Ronron. 


Lechny. 


Rosa. 


Limache. 


Roman. 


Limon. 


Omalate. 


Robleto. 


Limonsillo. 


Ontzu. 




Linipiadientes. 




Sacricoy. 


Liquidambar. 


Palohuite. 


SagsS or sacsi£. 


Llaje. 


Palo Jiote. 


Saccac. 


Llema de huevo. 


Palo de taray. 


Saro. 


Luin. 


Palo de matabuey. 


Sacmoshi. 


Lunelillo. 


Palo de zorro. • 


Sapuyul. 




Palo de matazano. 


Sangquiehf. 


Madre caoba. 


Palo gare. 


Sare negro. 


Madre cacao. 


Palo cortez. 


Sare espino. 


Madre cabe. 


Palo brazil. 


Sabacche. 


Madre flecha. 


Palo de uva. 


Salvia santa. 


Maninao. 


Palo zapotillo. 


Salvia silvestre. 


Matilisguate. 


Palo de poro. 


Sangre de drago. 


Maca de gallo. 


Palo mata. 


Santa maria. 


Macaguite. 


Palo de jaboncillo. 


Salamo. 


Madroncillo. 


Palo guayabillita. 


Salan. 


Madron. 


Palo bianco. 


Sacuche. 


Madrono. 


Palo mulato. 


Sal de venado. 


Mamey. 


Palo lagarto. 


Sacalasque. 


Mangle. 


Palo de la vida. 


Saca sangre. 


Mario. 


Paczimon. 


Sajat. 


Marillo. 


Patas. 


Sauco. 


Malacute. 


Patan. 


Sauce. 


Matasano. 


Paste de mico. 


Sacuayun. 


Manchador. 


Pasak. 


Samo. 


Macblnche. 


Panhul. 


• Sapote. 


Maray. 


Pante. 


Sapote cimarron. 


Majo de costa. 


Paraiso. 


Sebo verde. 


Majagua. 


Patastillo. 


Shuhyuc. 


Mano de leon. 


Pas de alvez. 


Shagnay. 

Siquilln: 


Macueliz. 


Peine. 


Manchich. 


Pellejo. 


Sinlccbe. 


Manas. 


Picarromorro. 


Simunte. 


Malerillo. 


Pino. 


SojchaJ. 


Manzano. 


Pinabete. 


Sosnl. 


Membrillo. 


Pimiento srivestre. 


Sumaque. 


Mescal. 


Pimiento. 


Supicay. 


Melocoton. 


Pij. 


Sumante. 



27 



Native Names of Woods of Guatemala — Continued. 



Suqulnay. 


Toxok. 


Yaxjabin. 


Suj. 


Toncontin. 


Yaj?. 




Tontal. 


Yaznlc. 


Tapalguacamayo. 


Tripa de coyote. 


Y ax man. 


Tacamatillo. 


Tripa de leon. 


Yesmo. 


Tabla. 


Trompillo. 


Yupoc. 
Ynibac. 


Taje. 


Tuavaean. 


Tamarindo. 


Tzalan. 


Yupe. 


Tapalcuite. 




Yxgualame. 


Tainarlndillo. 


I'ca. 


Yush. 


Tataseaniite. 


Ujacamlc. 




Tasisco or laxixcon. 


Djuste Colorado. 


Zacaton. 


Tashlste. 


T'juste bianco. 


Zapoton. 


Taray negro. 


Una de gato. 


Zapottllo. 


Tapiloco. 


Upay. 


Zapotillo de inico. 


Tan. 


Uvito. 


Zapote. 


Tatan. 


Urutay. 


Zapote de mlco. 


Tarnay. 




Zapote de montafia. 


Tapaljocote. 


Yactitzun. 


Zapiloco. 


Teinpiste. 


Valnllla. 


Zapoyulo. 


Tepecedro. 


Vara. 


Zigiya. 


Tepesuehel. 


Varilla. 


Zope. 


Testal. 


Volador. 


Zozin. 


Tepeguaje. 




Zopllote. 


Teste. 


Xilil. 


Zom or zon. 


Tinte. 




Zulunte. 


Tijte. 


Yaj. 


zucte. 


Tontolo. 


Yajillo. 


Zulul. 


Torany. 


Yax-ek. 





Medicinal Plants of Guatemala. 


Acbiote. 


Cache. 


i kmtrayerba. 


Aguacate de mico. 


Cafia de crlsto. 


Con. 


Altamisa. 


Camote. 


('onto. 


Alcotan. 


Capulin (raiz). 


i oitc/.a de balsamo. 


Algodon ixcaco. 


I'apulln (corteza). 
Calaguala (polypod). 


( nrteza de copalcbi. 


Algodon bianco. 


Corteza de copal. 


Algodon de corcho. 


Camotillo. 


Corteza de caulote. 


Algodon de ceiba. 


Calague. 


Cocteta de caeca- 


Alucema. 


(arnero. 


rfila. 


Almolonga. 


Caparroza. 


Corteza de guaua- 


Aflll. 


< acao. 


caste. 


Arnica. 


Canjul. 


Corteza de gratia- 


Arrayan. 


< 'aulote. 


dlllo. 




irllla. 


Corteza de qolna. 


Barba <le vlejo. 


I anutlllo. 


Corteia de orate- 


Balsamo. 


< lamella. 


brahacba. 


Barb > 


c lapetanejo. 


esa de saaafraa. 


Bejuco de cniz. 


i vegetal. 


Oorteu de tare 


Bejuco de dul. 


Celba. 


KTO. 


o Up guaco. 


Chile. 


ta de yaje. 


Bejnco de Ipeca- 


Cinco negrltos. 


nch& 


cuanha. 


Mill. 


Corteza de chichi- 


bco de barba de 


Cinchona. 






( jhuchlpate. 


de guaya- 


'•■ meona. 


i !huel 


can. 


■o de sublu. 


< ihlaulfnlt 




in. 




II HI. 








lino i iuinrron. 


i'l,|. 




:ija. 


Chh 






Corallllo. 


Jlolc. 






Medicinal Plants of Guatemala— Continued. 


Corteza de cin- 


Hojas de solojaj. 


Panquil. 


chona.. 


Hojas de laurel. 


Paraiso. 


Corteza de liquid- 


Hojas de tostonera. 


Palo de jiote. 


ambar. 


Hojas de conejo. 


Palo de cruz. 


Corteza de matilis- 


Hojas de upay. 


Palo de la vida. 


guate. 


Hojas de ruda. 


Poro (yerba). 


Corteza de pimiento. 


Hojas de yerba cul- 


Pez del mico. 


Corozo. 


ebra. 


Pimienta. 


Coroncho. 


Hojas de santisima 


Pinon. 


Corcho. 


trinidad. 




Copalchi. 


Hojas de chilehujia. 


Quina. 


Copal. 


Hojas de sante. 


Quiebrahacha. 


Culantro. 


Hojas de zorro. 




Culantrillo. 


Hojas de llmon. 


Ruda. 


Culebra. 


Hoja aromatica. 


Rabia. 


Cuatro hinojos. 


Hoja canjui. 


Ruibarbo. 


Cresta de gallo. 


Higuera (hojas). 


Raiz de poleo. 


Cuculmeca. 


Hicaque. 


Raiz de sutio. 




Huenon. 


Raiz de con. 


Doradilla. 




Raiz de gengibrillo. 


Doradilla (adian- 


Incienso de monte. 


Raiz de jicamo. 


thum). 


Ipecacuanha (bejuco). 


Raiz de gengibre. 


Drotoguaj. 


Ixcaco. 


Raiz de hicaque. 


Drago. 




Raiz de orozuz. 


Dul. 


Jamaica. 


Raiz de borraja. 


Durnche. 


Jalapa. 


Raiz de mechoacan. 




Jicamo. 


Raiz de escorzonera. 


Escoba. 


Jenjibrillo. 


Raiz de panquil. 


Escobilla. 




Raiz de zarzapa- 


Escobilla blanca. 


Lava plato. 


rilla. 


Escorzonera. 


Limon. 


Raiz de canutillo. 




Loro. 


Raiz de huenon. 


Flor doradilla. 


Laurel. 


Raiz de granadillo. 


Flor de hoja de 


LlantGn. 


Raiz de capulin. 


conejo. 


Liquidambar. 


Raiz de almolonga. 


Flor de mulatilla. 




Raiz de camotillo. 


Flor de muerto. 


Mapahuita. 


Raiz de cinco ne- 


Flor de manzanilla. 


Mulatilla. 


gritos. 


Flor de orejuela. 


Manias. 


Raiz de varafunda. 


Flor de sintus. 


Michoacan. 


Raiz de Valeriana. 


Flor de coroncho. 


Machul. 


Raiz de ipecacuanha. 


Flor de corozo. 


Madre de maiz. 


Raiz de guapillo. 


Flor de sanguinaria. 


Manzanillo. 


Raiz de cebollin. 


Flor de zach. 


Meona. 


Raiz de calaguala. 


Fruta pataste. 


Meona alves. 


Raiz de ruibarbo. 




Malva francosa. 


Raiz de calague. 


Gengibrlllo. 


Malva de castilla. 


Raiz de rubin. 


Gengibre. 


Malvavisco. 


Raiz de Jalapa. 


Granadillo. 


Murrulblanco. 


Raiz de cuculmeca. 


Granadillo silvestre. 


Malva silvestre. 


Raiz de orejuelo. 


Guaco. 


Mejorana. 


Raiz de guaco. 


Guanacaste. 


Malagueta. 


Raiz de yerba de 


Guarumo. 


Matiliquate. 


conejo. 


Guayabo. 


Morro. 


Raiz de conte. 


Guayacan. 


Monacillo. 


Raiz de nahuapate. 




Mejor nada. 


Raiz de yulpate. 


Hoja de guayabo. 


Margarit. 


Raiz de lavaplato. 


Hojas de higuera. 




Raiz de alcotan. 


Hojas de verbena. 


Negritos. 


Raiz de escobillo. 


Hojas mejor nada. 


Nlspero. 


Raiz de contray- 


Hojas de poleo. 


Nardo. 


erba. 


Hojas de santo do- 


Naranjo amargo. 


Rate de tntnngay. 


mlngo. 


Nabo. 


Raiz de canjin. 


Hojas de barbasco. 


Nahuapate. 


Raiz de pimienta. 


Hojas de salvia 

real. 
Hojas de perro. 


Nogal. 


Romero. 


Orozuz. 


Sauce. 


Hojas del aire. 


Orejuela. 


Salvia santa. 


Hojas de hemela. 


Ortlga. 


Salvia real. 


Hojas <ie malva. 


Ojo de venado. 


Salvia de monte. 


Hojas de sintul. 




Santo domingo. 


Hojas lava plains. 
Hojas sana lo todo. 


Poleo. 


Sanalotodo. 


Pericon. 


Sutio. 



29 



Medicinal Plants of Guatemala— Continued. 


Sintul. 


Tabaco. 


Verba vainllla. 


Sintus. 


Tostado. 


Verba del tOTO. 


Semilla de cera veg- 


Tostonera. 


Verba poleo. 


etal. 


Tasol. 


Verba inargarit. 


Bemllla de orejnela. 


Tarol. 


Verba del toro. 


Semilla de achiote. 


Tlsach. 


Verba buena. 


Semilla de capar- 


Tuculcbumes. 


Verba de culebra. 


rosa. 


Tejutla. 


Verba de la ineona. 


Semilla de al^ndon. 


Tamagas. 


Verba rabia. 


Bemllla de paraiso. 


Turij. 


Verba de cone.K). 


Solo uu pfe. 




Verba del medico. 


Sangre de drago. 


Vva. 


Verba del poro. 


Solajaj. 


Upay. 


Verba de carnero. 


Sasafraz. 




Verba barbona. 


Sare negro. 


Verbena. 


Verba del ciervo. 


Sacatinta. 


Valeriana. 


Yuquilla. 


Santisima trinidad. 


Vaiuilla. 


Yulpate. 


Sucbumacan. 


Varafunda. 


Yaje. 


Sabin. 


Venado. 


Vuca. 


Setesac. 






Sangulnaria. 


Verba de orozuz. 


Zarza de monte. 




Verba de sanalo- 


Zarzaparrilla. 


Te del monte. 


todo. 


Zacaton. 


T>- de limon. 


Verba del cancer. 


Zacb. 


Tomate del monte. 


Verba de sauto do- 




Toro. 


niingo. 







3C 



IV. 



FAUNA. 



The fauna of Guatemala is naturally varied. As Mr. Juan 
Rodriguez, a very competent and respectable zoologist of Gua- 
temala, says, the geographical position, the diversity of climate, 
produced partly by its topography, the great number of rivers 
and creeks found everywhere and the richness and exuberance 
of the vegetation support the life of an immense number of 
animals. It also happens that a number of migratory birds 
which periodically pass from the northern to the southern 
hemisphere go through the territory of Guatemala. A num- 
ber of birds also terminate their excursions in Guatemala, stay- 
ing several months, some for procreation and others, like 
doves, ducks and birds of prey, only for food. The territory 
of Guatemala has two species of monkeys (the Mono and the 
Mico). The first is Mycctcs villosus, the second the Atclcs 
vellerosus. Of Cheiroptera there are thirty-seven species, in- 
cluding vampires. To condense the account, this list is given 
of the principal animals, with their vernacular names : 

Name. Scientific Name. 

Musarafia 

" i r<i 

Tigre Felts < 

icel •• pen do 

TigriUo •• Ugrina. 

Leon " coneolor. 

I.i iii.il Lo " l/'irjilii 

.■ ■■ eyra. 

Coyote Canis latrans, 

Gato de monte ' Vulpes vtrgtnianua. 

31 



Nam Scientific Name 

Hapacbe Proeyon lotor. 

Qui* de toon Bag»aris tumichratU, 

Pixote Vatua natlca. 

Hicoleon Cercoleptes candlvolontvg 

C'einadreja Must) In lirnsilitnsis. 

Perico lijero Oailctli barbara. 

Zorillo WtphUU mephitiea. 

" putoriue. 

•' Oonepalut mapurito. 

Perro de ajiua Lutra.fiUna. 

Vara marina Mn minis mi si rails. 

Danta Taptnu bairtU. 

" tiniii. 

Coche de monte DicotyUs tajacu. 

Jabali LHcotyles labiatxu. 

Venado Cat incus riiaiiiiiinus. 

(iuizizil •' ruflnua, 

Ardilla •Sriuroptertts mlurtlla. 

" Sri in- us earoUnensti. 

" griseoflarmt, 

" " rarieaatus. 

" " fiypopyrrhus. 

" " ileppei. 

Pi a ton Miu muKUhtt. 

Katon de monte Hetptrnmys lean inn. 

" " " siiinichrasti. 

" " " conesi. 

" '' " nudicaudatut. 

" " Orhetniloti int'stmnus. 

" " Siginodon lUtptdtu. 

" '' HtOtoma femuiiiu a. 

Taltuza Qeomys mexieaMut. 

" kitpidtu. 

Raton de monte BUeromyt ttetmaruUanut. 

" " liDii/iraitiintus. 

Tuerco espin Synetherrs inesiranus. 

Cotviza Datyprocta punctata. 

Tepescuintle Cstlogtnyl para. 

Conejo. Leput palwtrit. 

Annado Tain sin novemdncta. 

C»o colmenero Yyrmecophaga jubata. 

" tttiiKlartyte. 

" do platanar • yrlntiirus dulartylui. 

Tacuasin DttUlphyi vtrotniana. 

' " i/u.'ca . 

" raton " miiiina. 

de agua. Chtlrontcte* rai i'gatus 



BIRDS. 

There are forty-nine species of Butcos, Falcos and other 
birds of prey; sixteen of owls and nightbirds, and 410 of 
smaller birds, besides a number of gallinaceaj. 

Herewith is a list of the more common birds: 

Son 7.01 1 tli- \finuix )/■ 

Baal 

i.i I'arranra " KMColOT. 

I'hipc / 

."'«•<!. 

Oalandria riot. 



■ 1 

Alcalde mayor 



/•' 



( haras Cyanocitta. 

(Trraca Calodttaformosa. 

Sanate ytitacolits ma* 

Resplandar Vvzivora Mexicana. 

Baton Oottnga amabilis. 

Colil.iis or Gorrioncs TrocMlida, 28 genera anil 3S epecie3. 

Carpinteroa Picidce, 13 species. 

Goloudrinas PcmfpttHa Bandli Hieronymi. 

Torobojos ATomotida; 6 species. 

Pescadores Aleedinidss, 5 species. 

Quetzal Pharomacros mocino. 

Cuculido Cuculus, 8 species. 

Cucharones Rhamphaslidse, 3 species. 

Loros or Pericos P&ittacidst, 14 - 1 

El Pangil Crex globict 

Pavo de Cacho Oreophasis derbyanus. 

Pavo del Peten Meteagris ocellata. 

Perdices and Codorniees Perdicidse, 7 species. 

Palomas Columbidu; 7 species. 

Zancudos Grallatores. 

Garzas ;ind Garzones Aideidte, 19 species. 

•' " Plat" 

" " Olconiadce. 

" " lbidx. 

Gallinetas Pallida; ] 

Gallaretus Parridx, \ .,,„.,,. -n . 

Collarejos CharadAdX, \ About °° e P ccw *- 

Becasinas Scolopacida, J 

" Palmipedes. 

Alcatraces or Pelicanos { r *T a %£ft eh , 

Ave horcado Tregetla aqulla. 

Pato aguja, Wyrteria Americana. 

" An 

Palomas marinas Colymbida. 



REPTILES. 

TORTUGAS. 

mtx, 9 species. Ohelonia Agaeieli. 

LAGARTOS. 

Orocodilvs moreleti. Crocodilue paciflcus. 

SAURIOS. 

Geckotlanee, C species. Jguanianse, 30 species. 

Iguana. 

Garrobo. Lacertianos, 1 

Cutete [Basiltseua viltatus). Calcidiaoos, I , r „„ , „ 

Corvtopbanus. Anfishenianos. MIanyspec.es. 

Anvlis. Sciucoideanue, J 

OFIDIOS 6 CCLEBRAS. 

Tiplopidos. MMMiiat I / ''"" '"'P"'" t " r - 

Pitouidos 6 Boideos. mazacuat, j .. j [eJ . iC(lll „_ 

COLl'ERIDOS. 

Culebras. Zumbadoraa. Leptopl.is. Heterodon. 

Sabaneras. C'alamaiia. Tropidonotua. Corules. 

Raneraa. Elaphis. XeoodOD. 

V1PERIDOS. 

Tiboia castellana. <':\<n-a.hi;\ (Cro/ultis I/o/i-idus). r -. \Alropm. 

Crotalidos. Tamagoi {Botrops). uwreuea, j L, ic hesit. 

ASFIBIOS 6 BATRACIOS. 



Rai.as, 9 species. NifiOB, ) „ i; nn i 

Sapos ( Ilu/on id:, ), 5 species. Pie dc niflo, - '; '' J*" 4 

Tapclena {Sip/wtwpt mtzicana). NifiodormidoJ '""'"<"" 



Bolito;, 

nrlms 



Fishes. There are over three hundred different species 
of fishes; fourteen species were found in the lake of Peten, 



33 



three in the lake of Atitlan. seven in the lake of Amatitlan, 
thirteen in the Motagua River, thirteen in the Usumacinta 
River and ten in the Rio Poloehic. The most appreciated 
fishes are the 

lepunMhin Agnostoma microps. Julllo 

■ .I Hems. Bagre or tante .. Arivt. 

Matrix, ivje LepUtogtetnue tropicut. 

Of Mohtscs the following are edible: 

Hilix Gieeebrechtii Almej.'is if at Hits. 

Jutes Ifelania. Ostraa Ottrea 

The insects are too numerous to be enumerated here. 

A great number of these animals here enumerated have 
economic value, such as the skins of deer and other mammals, 
the feathers of species of Ara, Trogon, Pteroglossus, Chrysotis, 
Rhamphastus, rharomacrus, Ceryle, Hylomanes, Melanespes, 
Cotinga, Chirochiphia, Pipra, Milvulus, Yeterus, Xanthura, 
Agelaeus phcenicerus, Cyanospiza, Tanagra, Chlorophanes, 
Euphonia, Calliste, Coereba, Pyranga, Rhamphocelus, Sialia, 
etc., the shells of carey (Testudo), the skins of a number of 
snakes and alligators, many fishes and moluscs, butterflies, 
etc. Also some living animals, such as parrots, small birds, 
monkeys, etc., are articles of commerce, although of slight 
importance. 



34 



V. 



POPULATION. 



Guatemala has 1,364,678 inhabitants, of whom more than 
two-thirds are pure Indians maintaining to a great extent their 
old customs. There are only 11,300 foreigners found in the 
entire Republic. 

There are twenty-two Departments, with ten large cities 
and twenty-two smaller ones and 304 townships. Over 1,000,- 
000 of the people live at an altitude of 3,000 feet above the 
sea, and in a moderate healthful climate. 

In the northern half of the Republic, covered mostly with 
humid forests, there are but two and a half inhabitants on a 
square kilometer; in the southern half, which is less humid 
and has a less exuberant vegetation, there are 25.6 inhabi- 
tants. In the highest regions (as Alta Verapaz, Quiche and 
Huehuetenango) the density of the population is 10.4 per sq. 
km. The dry regions of prairies and chaparrals, with a vege- 
tation of pines and oaks, have 30.1 inhabitants on the same 
area. Lower down, on the slopes of the volcanic chain, front- 
ing on the Pacific Ocean, 15 inhabitants are found on a sq. km. 
In the hot region the density of population is not much over 
0.4 of the same space. The average density for the entire re- 
public is 12.5 per sq. km. 

The density of population per sq. km. in each Department 
is as follows: 

35 



i' in 86 6 

Sao.i ti pequei 74 2 

Guatemala 70.6 

Aniatitlan AS 7 

Quizaltenango 47 (i 

Bolola 80.1 

San llaicoa '_7.7 

Ohiquimula 17 4 



i ftiinaltenango -'7.2 

Buchitepequei 22.6 

Santa Ki»a 16.6 

Kctallinl.il 16 .". 

liaja Verapaz 16 8 

Jutiapa lti.O 

Jala pa 16 



Huehuetonango ... 14.4 

Quichg 18.6 

Zac&pa 12 7 

Eacuintla :i.i 

ikpu ihi 

I/.alial 1.(1 

IVti'n (i 2 



The population, separating the mixed and white people 
(Ladinos) from pure Indians, in the different Departments is 
as follows: 



Guatemala . . . . 
Alta Yorapaz. . . 
Quezali. 
San Hal 

Totonicapan. . . 
Buahuetenango 

Qoiohe 

Solola 

Cliiqniiunla ... 
I'liimalti'iianeo 
Baja Veropu. .. 



Ladinos. 


Indians. 


88,562 


68,126 


7.07H 


120,249 


38,375 




37,852 


86,740 


4,378 


106,262 


17,.!25 




14,48] 


77,002 


6,983 




18,761 


46,664 


10,600 


64,655 


14,550 





Santa B06a. ... 

Jutiapa .... 
Bacatepequez. . 
Buchitepequei 

Kvtalliuleu. . . 

Zaoapa 

Jalapa 

Escuintla 

Amatitlan .... 

Izabal 

Pet6n 



LadlDOa Indians. 



48,071 

29,800 

19,575 
17,831 
'i'J,G71» 

'.'."..in ii i 
26,460 
4, '.MS 
4.S77 



7,708 
31,619 
16,271 
24,181 
21,842 
16,391 
17,042 
11.163 
10,700 
8,625 
3,443 



The total population in regard to age is composed as fol- 



lows : 



1 year 66,837 

1 to 6 vears 203,910 

6 " 14 " 232,948 

14 " 18 " 123,852 

18 " 21 " 101,153 

-1 " 80 " 223,725 



30 to 40 vears 167,317 

4(1 •■ 60 " •' 164,644 

60 " 80 " 

60 " 90 " 14,899 

90 "ion •• 4,094 

OverlOO " 



Of this population, 888,615 persons are single (450,1')!) 
men, 438,419 women); 396,696 married (196,730 men, [99,- 
966 women); 79,367 widowed (30,546 men, 48,821 women). 

There are a few Chinamen and a number of Negroes, mu- 
lattoes and Zambos on the sea coasts, in La Libertad (Peten), 
Panzos (Alta Ycrapaz), Salama and San Jeronimo (Baja Yera- 
paz) and along the Rio de los Esclavos (Santa Rosa). 

'Of the total population there arc further, by nationality, 
1,303 Americans (mostly Jews from the West); 532 Spaniards; 
453 Italians; 399 Germans; 349 English; 272 French. 

By occupation, 327,594 persons are laborers; 46,054 
bakers of tortillas (maize-bread); 21,930 weavers; 13.034 mer- 
chants; 9,653 seam 7»759 servants and female cooks. 



.36 



Again, 1,240,092 persons are illiterates; 827,058 are urban 
population; 1,356,105 are Catholics. 

The following lists give the names of the principal cities 
and municipalities and their population, as well as the altitude 
of each: 



Name. 



Guatemala ... 
Totonicapan .. 
Quezaltenango 

Cobau 

Chiquimula . . 

Jalapa 

Escuintla 

Salami 

Antigua 

Auiatitlan 



Population.. 



04,000-72,000 
33,000 
24,000 
23,000 
13,000 
13,000 
13,000 
11,000 
10,000 
9,(00 



Altitude above 
ithe sea in meters. 



Department. 



1,480 


Guatemala. 


2,429 


Totonicapan. 


2,262 


Quezaltenango. 


1,284 


Alta Verapaz . 


356 


Chiquimula. 


1.410 


Jalapa. 


384 


Escuintla. 


862 


BaiaVerapaz. 


1,361 


Sacatepequez. 


1,102 


Amatitlau. 



Other populous municipalities are: 



Name. 



Zaca pa 

Quich6 

Jutiapa 

Huehuetenango 

Retalhuleu 

Solola 

Mazatenango 

San Marcos 

Atitlan 

Chichicsstenango 

t'omitancillo 

Cohabou 

.1 ocotan 

Wonostenango 

San Pedro Pinula 

' 

San Juan Sacatepequez. 
San Martin Islotepeque, 
Santa Lucia Utatluu ... 

San Miguel I'etapa 

San Pedro Carcha 

San Cristobal. 

San Pedro Sacatepequez 

S;tn Felipe 

San Juan Ostuncalco. . . 
San Francisco el Alto. . . 
Santa Maria Chiquimula 
Santa Rosa 



Tejutla 



Population. 



12,000 
13,000 

14,000 
10,000 
10,000 

15,000 

10,000 

9,000 
10,000 

22,000 

18,000 
14,000 
12,000 
28,000 
10,000 
13,000 
19,000 
10,000 
10,000 
11.000 

n,ooo 
14,000 
11,000 
16,000 
22,000 
11,000 
10,000 
16,000 
10,000 



Altitude above 
the sea in meters. 



Department. 



166 

1,690 

868 

2,170 

298 

1,811 

2°4 

2,200 

V -2,000 

2,000-2,500 

2,000 

250-500 

250-500 

2,000-2,500 

1,000-1,500 

500-1,000 

1.600-2,000 

1.500-2,000 

400 

1,000-1,500 

1,000-1,500 

2,000-2,600 

500-800 

2,590-3,000 

2,000 

2,000-2,500 

•J.ooo 



Zacapa. 
Quiche. 

Jutiapa. 

Huehuetenango. 

Retalhuleu. 

Solola. 

Suchitepcquez. 

San Marcos. 

Solola. 

Quiche. 

San Marcos. 

Alta Verapaz. 

! Chiquimula. 

Totonicapan. 

Jalapa, 

Baja Verapaz. 

Guatemala 

Chimaltenango. 

Escuintla. 

Amatitlan. 

Alta Vi 1 

Alta Verapaz. 

Sau Marcos. 

Retalhuleu 

Quezaltenango, 

Totonicapan, 

Totonicapan. 
Santa Rosa 
San M.i 
San Marcos. 



The population of Guatemala lives in 325 houses of two 
stories, 53,574 of one story, and on 171,604 ranchos. 

Public education: Elementary tuition is given in 
schools of the first and secondary grades. There are now 
about 1,309 schools. The average daily attendance in the 



37 



national schools was 32,958 boys and 19,330 girls, 3,232 adults 
and 1,860 of both sexes in the private schools, making a total 
of 57,386. In addition there were also thirteen kindergartens. 

In 1890 there were t,-'52 schools throughout the Re- 
public, divided as follows: 462 country schools, 760 city 
schools and 30 private schools; or, classified in another way, 
691 for small boys, 369 for small girls, 48 mixed, 89 for work- 
men, 15 additional for small boys and 10 for small twirls. 
These employ 1,531 teachers, 987 males and 544 females. 

There are several public institutes in which higher grades 
of instruction are given gratuitously. There are two estab- 
lishments of this kind for girls in Guatemala and Quezalten- 
ango and three for young men, besides one in Chiquimula. 
In the Capital, as well as in Quezaltenango, the Government 
has esablished special schools of law. medicine and pharmacy. 
It has also founded a school for engineers, a polytechnic 
college for those intending to follow a military career, a 
commercial school, an agricultural school, an Academy of 
Fine Arts, a normal school for young women, another for 
young men incorporated with the Central Institute, and 
lastly a Conservatory of Music. 

In order to facilitate the education of the working cla 
night schools have been organized in several cities, and also 
public libraries opened, which are endowed by private dona- 
tions and by State appropriations. 

In the schools of arts and trades a general education is 
given in connection with their technical or special instruction. 

In the city of Guatemala there is a fine national library. 
in which, besides over 30,000 books, there are several valu- 
able collections of documents and inedited works. 

There i> also a great number of newspapers in the Capital 
and other principal cities. 

Indians: As the Indian population is the most mmin 
in the following pages some very interesting particular 
given. 

These aboriginal p< descendants of many tribes, 

which, at the time of the conqi 1 found in the fol- 

lowing divisions: 



1. States of the Pipiles, the Panatacatl, Cuzcatlan 
(Salvador), and the so-called Cacigazgos of the Pipiles, occu- 
pying the Departments of Escuintla and Jutiapa, and the 
parts bordering Salvador. 

2. States of the Kingdom Quiche, divided into the king- 
doms of Quiche, of the Mames and of the Cakyac, and into 
the cacigazgos of the Cuchumatanes, .of Uspantlan and of 
Tujal, occupying the present Departments of San Marcos, 
Retalhuleu, Ouezaltenango, Suchitepequez, Totonicapan, 
Quiche, Solola, Huehuetenango and Baja Verapaz. 

3. States of the Cakchiqneles, divided into the king- 
doms of Iximche and Yampuk and into the cacigazgos of the 
Akahates 6 Pocomames, comprising the present Departments 
of Chimaltenango, Sacatepequez, Amatitlan, Guatemala and 
parts of Santa Rosa, Jalapa and Jutiapa. 

4. States of the Mayas, divided into Aealan, Mazatlan, 
(Ouiacho), Taiza and Mopan, and into the cacigazgos of the 
Lacandones, corresponding with Peten and some parts of 
Quiche and Alta Verapaz. 

5. States of the Chorti.es, composed of the kingdoms 
of Copan and of Esquipulas, situated in the present Depart- 
ments of Zacapa, Chiquimula and in parts of Izabal. 

G. Independent cacigazgos of the Cho/es, found in Izabal 
and parts of Alta Verapaz. 

7. Independent cacigazgos of Tezulutan, in Baja Verapaz. 

8. Independent Kingdom of the Izutithiles, south of the 
ake of Atitlan in the present Department of Solola. 

9. Independent cacigazgos of the Xineas in the present 
Department of Santa Rosa and in part of Jutiapa. 

How slight the influence of the Spaniard and the Repub- 
lican governments of Guatemala has been in civilizing those 
Indians is shown by the fact that seventeen different languages 
are still spoken among them. 

These languages are : 

1. Ouekchi, spoken mostly in Verapaz, namely in Coban, 
Lanquin, Panzos, Cahabon, Chimaja, Rio Negro, Coyante, 
Golfo Dulce, etc. 

39 



2. O/nr/ir, spoken in Chicacao, Mazatenango, Retalhu- 
leu, San Felipe, Quezaltenango, Totonicapan, Santa Cruz de 
Quiche, Zacapulas, Rabinal and Saltan. 

3. Mam, spoken mostly in the Departments of San 
Marcos and Huehuetenango, in such places as Mercedes, San 
Pedro, San Marcos, Tejutlaj, Tuxtla chico, Teatitan, Chiantla 
and Todos Santos. 

4. Cakchiquel, mostly spoken in the Departments of 
Solola, Chimaltenango and Sacatepequez, in Patulul, An- 
tigua, Mexico Viejo, San Jose, Eucuentros and Solola. 

5. Maya, spoken in the Department of Peten (in Flores, 
Santa Barbara, Dolores, San Toribio, San Juan, Chuntuque 
and islands). 

6. Pocomam, spoken in the Departments of Amatitlan, 
Sacatepequez and Guatemala (Amatitlan, Mixco, Chinantla, 
San Antonio, Canoas, Mixco Viejo and separately in Pinula 
and Jilotepeque. 

7. Charti, spoken in Chiquimula, Ipala, Joeotan and 
Taquaimi in the Department of Chiquimula. 

8. Poconchi, spoken in the upper valley of the Poloehic 
River, in Pancus, Tucuru, Tachic, San Cristobal and Chixay. 

'••. Zutukil, spoken from the southern shore of the lake 
of Atitlan to near Chicacao and Mazatenango in the Depart- 
ment of Solola. 

10. Ch/tj, spoken in the upper part of Huehuetenango, 
especially in Ameleo, San Mateo, Gracias and near Neuton. 

11. Xinca, spoken in the vicinity of Chiqtlimutilla, 
Alzatate, Jalapa, Yupiltepeque and Jumaitcpeque in the De- 
partments of Santa Rosa and Jutiapa. 

12. fxil, spoken in the Department of Quich£, around 
Cozal, Nebaj, ( ha jut and Horn. 

13. Jacalteca, Bpoken in Santa Eulalia, Soloma, San 
Juan, Jacaltenango and Camoha in the Departmenl of Hue- 
huetenango. 

II spoken in Aguatan, Department of \\\\<^- 

huetenanj 

40 



15. Uspantea, spoken around Uspantan, Department of 
Quiche. 

16. Caraibe, spoken around Livingston on the Gulf of 
Honduras, Department of Izabal. 

17. Pipil, spoken in separate places in the Departments of 
Jutiapa, Zacapa and Baja Verapaz. 

The Spanish language is only generally spoken along the 
Pacific coast, in the city of Guatemala and in the direction of 
Salvador and Honduras, as well as in the valley of the Mo- 
tagua River. 

The clothing of the Indians varies as much as their 
languages. The principal raw materials for it are cotton, 
wool, silk, palm leaf and maguey fibre. They are now mostly 
cotton, wool and silk yarns imported and woven by Indian 
women in their primitive looms. The greatest variety is seen 
in skirts, and this as well in raw material, and in dimensions, 
especially lengths, as in color and adornments. Particularly 
fine looking skirts for women, called Huipil'es, are found in 
Totonicapan, Baja Verapaz, Alta Verapaz, Quiche and Chi- 
maltenango. Also in women's scarfs, called rebozos, a great 
variety of colors distinguishes one tribe from another. The 
wardrobe of an Indian is not much varied; a hat, a pair of 
sandals, trousers, a belt of wool, silk or cotton, called faja 
or banda, a shirt, and sometimes a jacket, compose his com- 
plete outfit. 

Often a change in the habits of the Indian illustrates the 
eagerness of statesmen to obtain a quick result in civilizing 
him, rather than any transformation of character. So far, 
the Indian sticks to his customary clothing and his own 
language, as no Government has ventured to incur the ill- 
will of the farmers and proprietors, who fear in a change of 
Indian habits a change in labor conditions, which might moan 
a serious embarrassment of their interest. 

The Indian lives generally in a hut of any form, made 
with wooden posts, bamboo or cornstalks, straw, or other 
material easily handled. Adobes or stones are seldom used, 
and when used it is mostly for a church or government build- 
ing, as in olden times, when temples and public buildings alone 
were built of durable material. 

4i 



Speaking of older structures. ( Guatemala pi s veral 

centres of important and interesting architectural remains of 
ancient Indian civilization. They are Tical (I'ctcn) near the 
frontier of Yucatan, Quiche or Utitlan or Cumarcaah, near 
Santa Cruz de Quiche, Iximche, near Tecpan (Guatemala), in 
the Department <»f Chimaltenango, Santa Lucia and Cut- 
zumalguapa in the Department of Escuintla, where the cele- 
brated 1). A. Bastian collected beautiful anti(|uities, Senaca 
Mecallo, near Comapa in the Department of Jutiapa, and 
Quirigua, southward of the port of Izabal, on the left hand 
shore of the Motagua River. 

Xext to architectural works, some idols and all kinds of 
earthenware pottery have received the attention of the scien- 
tific world, especially specimens from Quiche, Alta and Baja 
Verapaz, Chimaltenango. Huehuetenango, Jalapa and Jutiapa. 
Antique pottery has also been found in the lake of Atitlan 
near the shore, and some large stone idols have been dis- 
covered on the slopes of the Yolcan dc Agua. 

Pottery still forms an important industry of the aborig- 
ines. The most celebrated earthenware comes from Totoni- 
capan, San Marcos, Quezaltenango and Chimaltenango. 

The principal industry of Guatemalan Indians is textile, 
to which should be added the manufacture of hats, baskets, 
ropes, nets, hammocks, sacks and all kinds of clothing. All 
these industries are, of course, domestic, and mostly in the 
hands of women, who also are the sellers or merchants. 

Men cultivate the soil, planting maize, tobacco, beans, 
bananas, etc., and they work as ordered by the authorities. 

The Indians bear also the burden of maintaining the 

as a personal tax. Since the conquest an annual tax 

of two pesos has been imposed on every man from eighteen 

:>. or four days' work in opening or repairing 

■ 

Notwithstanding this tax, which has been collected for 
centuries, very few roads are in existence, ami most of tln.se 
which do exist are in a poor condition. 

The Indians also in many other ways are suffering the 
adver of the Spanish colonial dominion. The 

practi loiting th< the people continues to this 

4* 



day. Very little has been done to raise the intellectual level 
of the Indians and to emancipate them from superstition and 
misery. Out of a population of 1,364,678 there are 1,240,092 
without any education. 

There is also an agricultural law which compels the In- 
dian to work in a way that amounts to practical slavery not 
unlike that of olden times. The laborer must obey the orders 
of the authorities; he cannot leave his place under any circum- 
stances until his work is done or his debts paid. Each one 
of them carries with him a book in which his debts are stated, 
and from it may be learned his obligation for future work. 
It is a common occurrence that these obligations are sold, 
which means the forced transfer of the working man from 
one place to another without any consideration for him. A 
sure consequence of such a system is the exclusion of free 
labor as understood in the United States. Under it wages 
are very low, and no foreigner will compete for them. Hence, 
immigration and colonization, with their resulting advantages, 
cannot be expected in Guatemala for many years to come. 



43 



VI. 



AGRICULTURE AND LIVE STOCK. 



The larger part of the population in Guatemala is occu- 
pied with agriculture. The different agricultural products 
raised depend on the elevation of the lands above sea level and 
on climatical conditions. Their distribution is clearly indi- 
cated in the table at the end of the chapter on Vegetation. 
Economically, the most important plant cultivated in Guate- 
mala is the coffee tree, and especially the coffca arabica. 

The crop of coffee in 1894 (the latest statistical data) was 
66,256,600 pounds, of which the 



Depart) main. 

epequei, 

1 liiiniltenanvo. 

Amatitlan, 
• intla, 
i Hosa, 

Quel 1 
SuchitepeqaM, 

Mill II, 
" 

lluel ': 

Verspu, 

•• 

tubal, 

' IM<|UIIMul:i. 
Jlltl 



produced on 117,186 trees 144,200 pounis. 









2,112,100 


1,116,242 • 


























12,184,600 




111,100 
















17,7"i 




















97,100 



iuikIh. 



principal ( 

In Quezaltenango: Colomba, Chuva and Palmar. 



44 



In San Marcos: Tumbador, San Pablo, San Cristobal 
and Progreso. 

In Suchitepequez: San Francisco, Zapotitlan and San 
Antonio. 

In Chimaltenango: Pochuta, San Pedro, Yepocapa and 
Acatenango. 

In Santa Rosa: San Jose de Barberena. 

In Retalhuleu : San Felipe. 

In Solola: Chicacao, Santa Barbara and Patulul. 

In Escuintla: Escuintla and Santa Lucia Cotzumalguape. 

In Amatitlan: Amatitlan and San Miguel Petapa. 

In Alta Verapaz: San Pedro, Carcha and Coban. 

In Zacapa: Gualan. 

In Baja Verapaz: Purulha. 

Coffee grows best in the region of the volcanoes and in 
A.lta Verapaz , with over 2,000 millimeters of rainfall per year, 
18 to 26 C, average temperature, and between 200 and 1,600 
meters in height above the sea level. 

The report of this product, which is nearly the only one 
going extensively abroad, has been, since 1873, as follows: 



i 
9 


Pounds. 


Price per 100 Value in 


2 Pounds. 


Price per 100 


Value in 


>H 




lbs. in pesos. 1 pesos. 


^ 


lbs. in p'-sos. 


pesos. 


1873 


15,056,000 i 




1884 37,130,600 




1,445,667 


1874 


16,158,300 ; 






1885 


52,031,800 




5,203,181 


1875 


16,357,000 






1886 


52,975,100 


ii 


5,827,264 


1876 


20,740,000 








18.87 


47,869,100 


17 


8,137,478 


1877 


20,996,400 








1888 


36,639,800 


18 


6,595,181 


1878 


20,935,800 








1889 55,23S,lKio 


23 


12,704,948 


1879 


25,201,600 








1890 50,859,900 


25 


12,714.981 


1880 


28,976,200 








1891 62,449,500 


25 


13,112,379 


1881 


26,037,200 






4,084,348 


1892: 49,161.200 


28 




1882 


31,227,100 






3,719,20!) 


1893 .V.1,840,300 


31 


18,550,515 


1883 


40,406,900 12 

1 


4,848,837 


1 







The best prices are obtained for coffees produced in high 
regions. 

The next most important agricultural product is the 
banana. In 1894 there were 9,045 hectares planted with 
bananas, which produced 2,106,908 bunches. 



45 



Table of banana production for ten years, ending 1893: 



1884 



Production 
in bunches. 






Value in 



11. 7.' 

27,661 
65,213 



I8S8 
1880 
1891 



Production 
in bunches. 



Value in 



110,222 










700 


8,854 


889,741 




178,118 



The principal banana production is in Santa Rosa (816,- 

bunches), Alta Vcrapaz (248,466 bunches), Izabal (199,- 

mnches), Solola (167,725 bunches), Suchitepequez (162,- 

186 bunches), Retalhuleu (92,330 bunches), Escuintla (81,630 

bunches), San Marcos (76,690 bunches), Quezaltenango (74,- 

572 bunches), Amatitlan .(72,962 bunches). 

The production of the sugar-mills in 1894 was 6,555,250 
pounds of sugar, 10,881,000 cakes of panela, 923,900 pounds 
of molasses called "miel," and 3,537,100 pounds of the so- 
called "mascabado." 

The principal sugar regions are: 



Amatitlan 8,i t i-ane. 

Escuintla 6 866 " " 

ipax 1,97 1 " " 

Quiche 1,364 

(juezaltenaug" . ... 1 ,222 

Ban Karoos 1.' 54 

Huehuetenango . . 98S 



Suchitepequez 729 Hectares of cane, 

Solola 

Aitt Verapas 678 

Chimaltenango. .... 6 '.< 

Santa Ross 428 

Kctalhuleu 1-4 " " 



Nearly all of the sugar is consumed in Guatemala. 
export of this product since 1879 has been as follows: 



The 





Pounds, 




Pounds 








15,600 


1884 ... 


7,614 
4,411 






















189] 





1801 




















\s to Indian ecru there weir produced of it in [894, 161,- 

41 _'. 475 pounds. The following varieties are cultivated: Mai/. 

bianco, Maiz rojo, Maiz salpor, Mai/ negro, Mai/ Colorado, 






Maiz amarillo, Maiz pinto and a few others. Indian corn is 
principally raised in Totonicapan (34,124 hectares), Chimalte- 
nango (11,843), Guatemala (9,986), Alta Verapaz (6,435), 
Solola (6,097), Quezaltenango (5,949), Santa Rosa (5,290), 
Sacatepequez (4,054), Jalapa (3,931), Zacapa (3,885), San 
Marcos (3,603), Huehuetenango (3,543), and Amatitlan 

(3>035)- 

A very important product for the alimentation of the 
people is the bean. There are also of this plant a number of 
varieties, such as Frijol bianco, Frijol negro, Frijol cafe, 
Frijol amarillo, Frijol Colorado, Frijol pinto, Frijol piloy, Frijcl 
aplomado, Frijol pilique, Frijol istapacal, Frijol espumita, etc. 

In 1894 there were produced about 6,536,200 pounds of 
beans. The principal bean producing Departments are Guate- 
mala (1,006 hectares), Chimaltenango (984), Solola (931), 
Amatitlan (573), Chiquimula (375), Alta Verapaz (366), Za- 
capa (359), Sacatepequez (354), Santa Rosa (265), Jalapa (260), 
Izabal (257). 

Tobacco is mostly produced in Chiquimula (9,983,700 
plants), Zacapa (2,214,000), Jalapa (1,585,000), Santa Rosa 
(792,000), Jutiapa (570,000), Quiche (538,000), Peten (244,- 
000). 

The total crop in 1894 was 1,474,068 pounds, and all this 
tobacco was consumed in the country itself. In 1896 only 
408 pesos worth of tobacco was exported. 

The production of cacao is still very limited. There were 
in 1894 1,672,940 cacao trees, which gave 417,173 pounds of 
beans. The principal cacao producing Departments are: 
Escuintla (607,876 trees), Suchitepequez (587,668), Solola 
(204,301), Retalhuleu (122,898). The export of cacao in 1896 
amounted to a valuation of only 8,661 pesos. 

Wheat is mostly cultivated in Quezaltenango (3,808 
hectares), Suchitepequez (2,151), Chimaltenango (2,132), 
Totonicapan (1,420), San Marcos (943), Jalapa (250), and 
Huehuetenango (137). The total area is 10,965 hectares. 

Of barley only 397 hectares were cultivated, of which 119 
were in Chimaltenango, 86 in Sacatepequez, 78 in Guatemala, 
36 in Quezaltenango, 33 in Solola, and 31 in Amatitlan. 

Oats were mostly planted in Quezaltenango (192 hec- 

47 



tares), San Marcos (115), and Totonicapan (in). The total 
area was 432 hectares. 

Potatoes were cultivated in Totonicapan (530 hectares), 
San Marcos (235), Ouezaltenango (166), Solola (54), Huehue- 
tenango (48), Sacatepequez (40), etc. The total area devoted 
to this crop was 1,136 hectares. 

The production of other products, like rice, yucca (Mani- 
hot), name, sweet potatoes, indigo and garden plants, including 
vegetables, is very limited. Also, fruit trees are not very 
abundant, with exception of oranges, mango, jocote, aguacate, 
guayabo, and some others. 

Passing to the live-stock, there are about 163,381 horses 
and mules, 497,130 cattle and 490,176 sheep and goats distrib- 
uted all over the country, and they are mostly found in regions 
of savannas or in potreros, of which there are about 316,071 
hectares, namely 50,331 in the Department of Guatemala; 39,- 
850 in Santa Rosa; 38,407 in Huehuetenango; 29,898 in Es- 
cuintla; 24,248 in Alta Verapaz; 22,564 in Zacapa; 13,259 in 
Baja Verapaz; 12,515 in Amatitlan; 12,402 in Chiquimula; 13.- 
183 in Solola; 11,126 in Jutiapa; 10,263 in Suchitepequez; 7,810 
in Sacatepequez; 6,704 in San Marcos; 6,645 m Jalapa; 5,843 in 
Ouezaltenango; 5,404 in Quiche; 4,192 in Retalhuleu, etc. 
In 1896 cowhides valued at 3,360 pesos were exported to the 
United States. 

The salaries and wages paid in agriculture are as follows: 

Foremen 25 to 1 to paper pesos per month. 

Laborers 20 to 75 centavos paper money per day. 

Peons 50 centavos to 1 pesos paper money j er Jay. 

Coarhmen 20 to 60 peso paper money per month. 

Cooks 3C to 100 pesos paper money per month. 



4^ 



VII. 



MEANS' OF COMMUNICATION. 



A very important factor in the economic development of 
a country is its means of communication. Guatemala is also 
here deficient. 

The principal roads are called "caminos carrcfcros," more 
or less fitted for transportation by ox or mule carts. Such roads 
exist between Guatemala and Quezaltenango, between Quezal- 
tenango and San Marcos, between Quezaltenango and Retal- 
huleu, between El Rodeo and Ocos, between El Rodeo and Ca- 
ballo bianco, between Retalhuleu and Mazatenango, between 
Escuintla and Santa Lucia, between Guatemala and San An- 
tonio, between Guatemala and Antigua, between Antigua and 
Escuintla, between Guatemala and Cuajiniquilapa, between 
Cuajiniquilapa and Mataquescuintla, between Coban and Pan- 
zos, between Chiquimula and Zacapa, between Zacapa and 
Gualan, between Guatemala and Jalapa, and between Guate- 
mala and San Jose. 

The only stage service in the country is between Guate- 
mala and Quezaltenango and between Guatemala and An- 
tigua. 

During the rainy season the roads are in a wretched con- 
dition, and during the dry season little is done to them, not- 
withstanding that most of the exported and imported goods" 
have to be moved on these roads. 

49 



The following table gives the distances between the prin- 
cipal points in Guatemala: 



Guatemala to 

Autinua 9 leagues. 

Cliimaltenango 12 

Amatitlan li 

Eseuintla H'o 

Oiiajiniquilapa 14 

BololA 30 

Totonioapaii oi 

Quezaltm.-ingo. 4(1 

Mazatenango 4G 

Retallmleu GJ 

San .Marcos 66 



Ouatemala to 

lluehiiitiiiaiico f>5 leagues 

Santa Cruz de Quichg 32 

Salaiusi 23 " 

Coban, 42 " 

Fiona 107 

Izabal 72 '• 

Zacapa 42 " 

Chiquiiuula 4"i 

.lalapa .'."• 

.Hitiapa 20 " 



There are a number of railroads built for the exportation 
of coffee and the importation of foreign goods, with a gauge of 
only three feet (915 mm.). Of these the most important is 
the Central or Southern Railroad, 74.5 miles long, between the 
port of San Jose (Pacific Ocean) and the capital of Guatemala. 
It belongs to an American company. From this line a branch 
"runs from Obero 6 Naranja, thirteen miles from San Jose, to 
the port of Iztapa, near the mouth of the river of the same 
name. Another branch passes from Santa Maria (near Es- 
cuintla). twenty-eight miles from San Jose, to Santa Lucia 
and Patulul, traversing an important coffee and sugar country. 

The next most important railroad is called "Ferrocarril 
Occidental," and connects the port of Champerico (Pacific 
Ocean) with San Felipe. It is forty-one miles long, and was 
built by capitalists domiciled in the country. 

Perhaps not less important is the so-called "Ferrocarril 
del Norte," from Puerto Barrios (Atlantic Ocean) to the 
Rancho de San Augustin. It is 140 miles long, and was built 
by the national government with the intention of bringing it 
seventy-five miles farther, to the capital of Guatemala, ft 
passes along the valley of the Motagua River, and opens a 
very rich zone for coffee and sugar production. 

Still another railroad has been built along the Polochic 
River, between Panzos and Tucuru, in order to bring coffee 
and other products from the Departments of Verapaz down 
to the port of Livingston. Finally, in course of construction 
is a railroad from the p OS (Pacific Ocean) inland in 






the direction of San Marcos, also built with the purpose of fa- 
cilitating the transportation of coffee and of promoting in- 
creased production. 

Since these railroads were opened, transportation by ox 
or mule carts, or by packing on the backs of mules or Indians, 
has diminished considerably, although the cart roads are still 
full of Indians and beasts of burden, carrying wood, iron, min- 
erals, coffee, sugar, corn, beans, fruits, vegetables, earthen- 
ware, charcoal, hay, etc., to market. 

In another place the ports of San Jose, Champerico and 
Ocos, and the river port of Iztapa, all on the Pacific coast, have 
been mentioned, as well as the ports of Livingston, Puerto 
Barrios and Santo Tomas, on the gulf of Honduras; the port 
of Izabal, on Lake Izabal; and the river ports of Gualan on 
the Motagua, and Panzos on the Polochic Rivers, tributaries 
to the Atlantic Ocean. These are important factors of Guate- 
malan trade. 

In 1893 the maritime movement of Guatemala, as to pack- 
ages and weight, was as follows : 



Port of San Jost'\ 398,817 pieces, or 78,828,000 pounds. 
•' Chainperico.218,838 " 24,374,500 " 

" Ocos, 31,467 " 4,114,300 " 

" Livingston, 103,080 " 9,101,000 " 



Total 752,202 110,418,000 

In 1896 there were 748,266 pieces, or 65,687,660 pounds. 

There entered and cleared in 1893 the following shipping: 
378 vessels carrying the American flag; 55 carrying the Ger- 
man; 47 carrying the English; 20 carrying the Norwegian. 

The steamship lines which regularly visit the Pacific ports, 
of which each one has an iron pier, are the Pacific Mail, an 
American line plying between Panama and San Francisco, 
and the Kosmos and Kirsten lines, both German. These three 
lines receive a subvention from the Government. 

The steamers of the Pacific Mail have the following itin- 
erary : 

The steamer which sails from Panama on the 9th of each 
month arrives at San Jose on the 15th, at Champerico on the 
16th, at Ocos on the 17th. 



The steamer which sails from Panama on the 19th arrives 
at San Jose on the 28th, and at Champerico on the 29th. 

The steamer which sails from Panama on the 28th or 29th 
arrives at San Jose on the 4th or 5th, and at Champerico on the 
5th or 6th. 

The coast steamer which sails from Panama on the 10th 
of each month arrives at San Jose on the 20th, at Champerico 
on the 2 1 st. 

The coast steamer which sails from Panama on the 30th 
arrives at San Jose on the 12th, at Champerico on the 13th, 
and at Ocos on the 14th. 

The same steamers sail from San Francisco (California) 
on the 8th, 18th and 29th. 

The first arrives at Ocos on the 19th, at Champerico on 
the 21st, and at San Jose on the 24th. 

The second arrives at Champerico on the 2d, and at San 
Jose on the 5th. 

The third arrives at Champerico on the 10th, and at San 
Jose on the 15th. 

The Kosmos and Kirsten lines take about fifty days in 
coming from Hamburg via the Strait of Magellan, but they 
have no fixed itinerary. In the same condition are the steam- 
ers which visit Puerto Barrios, Santo Tomas and Livingston. 

These ports on the Atlantic coast are visited by a number 
of steamers which go to New Orleans, New York and Europe 
from Belize, Livingston and Puerto Barrios and the north 
coast of Honduras. A number of sailing vessels, from eight 
to twelve, are running on the same routes, but without fixed 
itineraries. 

As to other means of communication, Guatemala is also 
connected by cables and telegraphs with the civilized world. 
In 1893 there were 3,886 km. (2,430 miles) of telegraph lines, 
with 139 offices, which together dispatched 702,433 telegrams. 
The postal service maintained 176 offices, which distributed 
4,379,654 letters and sent out 5,150,926. 



5* 



VIII. 



FINANCE, COMMERCE AND INDUSTRY. 



The commercial world of Guatemala is seriously de- 
pressed by existing economic and financial as well as political 
disturbances. Besides the considerable fall in the value of 
silver, the "curso forzoso" of the paper money, the deficiency 
in the last coffee crop, and the low price paid for it, there 
were also the last revolution with its ruinous consequences, 
the recent Central American Exposition with special allow- 
ances for free importation, and an unreasonable financial 
policy of the late President which heavily embarrassed the 
country and impaired the welfare of the nation, to make the 
situation appalling. 

Large coffee and sugar planters have exhausted their 
credit abroad and many merchants have been obliged to sus- 
pend payment. There is besides superabundance in many 
imported products, with the exception of articles of daily and 
general use, such as flour and nutrient farm produce, tobacco, 
etc. Drafts for foreign exchange have a very high premium, 
and many merchants ceased long ago to send drafts to Europe 
or to the United States, waiting for better times. 

Taking up the finances and revenues of Guatemala, the 
treasury derives its income from the following sources: taxes 
on liquors and duties on imports and exports, stamped paper 
and revenue stamps, taxes on real estate and on roads, charges 
for exemption from military service, taxes on live stock, flour, 

53 



salt, inheritances, sales and donations of immovable property, 
fines and confiscations, sale of vacant lands, revenues from 
pawn shops and from post and telegraph service. 

The headquarters Of the custom-house service received in 
1896 

4,498,838X4 pesos import duties from Guatemala Citv. 
1,783,885 25 " ■■ ■< •' Retalhuleu. 

19,637 30 Champeriro. 

566,628 13 '• " •■ •• LiTingston. 

112,662.76 Ocos. 

45,070 43 ' ■• •• " Overland lli 



Total 7,026,021 81 pesos. 

There are also some export duties, as on coffee, so that 
the total amount of customs receipts in 1896 was 8,984,417.51 
pesos. 

In 1896, besides the custom dues of 8,984,417.51 pesos 

There were dues on liquor and victualler.*' licenses to the amount of 3,788,245.37 " 

Various taxes, to the amount of 2,069,017 75 " 

Telegraph service, to the amount of 211,87". 

Postal service, to the amount of 97,186 32 

Total 15,15(1,741.44 pesos. 

The expenditure was calculated at 17,437,452.93 pesos. 
The external debt in the same year was: 

4 per cent, external consolidated £1,549,940 

SI tiller fc Thomson's loan 459,875 

Total £2,0(9,815 

The internal debt was as follows: 



Treasury notes in circulation . . 86,786.00 peaot 

Bonds and f rait ions of loan 1,466,339.88 

Exhibition bonds 904,000.00 ' ' 

Guatemala Bank 300,000.00 

Corporations and Companies 

Deposits 112,964.14 

Floating' debt Ml ,469 

Bills payable 1,121,964 

Salaries and expenses 2,472,946 68 

Total 7,819,8 

There were also national assets to the amount of 7,866,- 
737.07 pesos. 

The value of the entire property of Guatemala wa 
mated not to be over 1 1 ,853,085 pesos. 

54 



Against this crushing line of figures the following list is 
given of the importations and exportations in pesos since 1851, 
which has a more favorable aspect: 



Year. 


Importation. 


Exportation. 
1,404,000 


Year. 
1S73 


Importation. 


Exportation. 


1851 


1,403,884 


1,191,830 


2,364,26-5 


1852 


], 581,207 


e 68, 550 


1871 


3,0.54,004 


2,300,621 


1853 


976,943 


599,047 


1875 


2,585,738 


3,V17,344 


3854 


873,831 


2,033,300 


1876 


2,716,704 


3,707,471 


1855 


826,480 


1,282,891 


1877 


3,133,871 


3,773,138 


1856 


1,206,210 


1,706,973 


1878 


3,238,437 


3,918.912 


1857 


1,065,816 


1,605,389 


1879 


2,929,464 


4,605,633 


1858 


1,135,517 


2,024,560 


1880 


3,035,536 


4.425,336 


1859 


1,223,770 


1,766,920 


18M 


3,664,674 


4,084,348 


1861) 


1,520,050 


2,024,560 


1882 


2,652,042 


3,719,209 


1861 


1,495,191 


1,106,583 


1883 


2,030,893 


5,718,341 


1862 


1,093,040 


1,368,151 


1884 


3,829,650 


4,937,941 


1863 


745,042 


1,498,311 


1885 


3,103,277 


6 069,045 


1864 


1,414,904 


1,562,916 


1886 


3,537,399 


6,719,502 


1865 


1,049,712 


1,833,325 


1S87 


4,241,407 


9,039.391 


1866 


1,699,115 


1,680,341 


1888 


5,459,568 


7,239,977 


1867 


1 ,574,587 


1,919,650 


1889 


7,586,661 


13,247,089 


1868 


1,664,813 


2,188,197 


1890 


7,639,833 


14,401,534 


lf-69 


1,763,102 


2,291,052 


1891 


7,806,730 


14,175,392 


1870 


1,374,897 


2,014,782 


1892 


6,010,233 


14,869,324 


1871 


2,403,503 


2,657,715 


1893 


0,383,834 


20,327,077 


1872 


2,209,214 


2.704,068 









The value of the imports is that estimated by the manu- 
facturers, and the value of the exports is calculated at the 
ports, and includes transportation to them. 

Continuing the information concerning the foreign com- 
merce of Guatemala, these tables are given: 

Exportations to the United Slates of America in 1896 were 
as follows : 



Coffee. 




Deer skins, 


valued at 


1,219 pesoe 


Bananas, 


valued at 69,861 pesos. 


Living plants 


" 


30 " 


Minerals, 


40 " 


Zarzap&rilla, 


" 


110 " 


Corozo, 


" 250 pesos. 


Black beans. 


11 


4 


Cowhides, 


33,602 " 


Tobacco, 


" 


408 " 


India rubber, 


25,025 Li 


Sundries, 




910 " 


Lumber. 


S> " 


Hardware, 




240 " 


Coined silver 


" 3S2,200 " 









At the same time there were exported to Germany, coffee 
amounting to 46,268,078 pounds; cowhides valued at .28,682 
pesos; Indian rubber valued at 8,822 pesos; deer skins valued 
at 6,896 pesos; sundries valued at 1,310 pesos. 

To England: Coffee amounting to 10,332,847 pounds; 
Indian rubber valued at 15,488 pesos; sundries valued at 435 
pesos. 



55 



To France: Coffee, amounting to 1,585,563 pounds; 
coined silver valued at 22,000 pesos. 

Other products for export are cinchona hark, of which, 
in 1893, there was sold a valuation of 3,740 pesos, and 
the rubber, called "hule" or "caucJiu," of which, in 1893, a valu- 
ation of 38,898 pesos was sent abroad. 

The production of rubber since i860 has been as follows : 



lew. 


Nn. pounds. 


loar. 


No. pounds. 


Tear. 


No. pounds. 


1860 


221,630 




0,200 


1886 


282,400 


1861 


292,600 


1874 


42,800 


lss? 


328,400 


1862 


189,900 


1879 


1,800 


1888 


221,100 


1863 






28,900 


1889 




1864 


(.900 


ISM 


188,100 


J 890 


143,000 








845,900 


1891 


142,200 




214,000 


1888 


84S.4O0 


1898 


817,800 


1872 













Besides rubber, only the following forest products, mahog- 
any, cedarwood, mora, campeche, brazilwood and some zarza- 
parilla and corozo (oilseeds) are exported. 

The United States of America exported to Guatemala in 
the same vear: 



Oila 81,976.40 

69,135.60 



..mis S64, 

Sundry article* 71 

i 1 

Shoe material — 

19,126.80 

14,i:N60 

Carrin ■ -i.s7.Mii 

Barter 

Beer 

rri-nervfn HI 

Ceimiit I 

, 31 



Iluililii . - 

4 

■I ' 
Iron » • 
Iron in t>»r« 






Lumber and building material 

Machinery .... 

Material f"i railway! •• 

graphi 

Furniture 

Lard 

turei i'f leather and 

fur 





Potatoes and iudian con 



Silk 







Mid liiiunr* 







56 



The imports from France amounted in the same year to 
1,196,849.40 pesos, as follows: 



Spirits, brandy, etc 130,240.50 pesos. 

Cotton (yarns, etc.) 123,804. SO " 

Fundry articles 72,601.45 ' 

Preserves 32,145.20 '■ 

(Mass and china ware 14,170.2"> " 

Copper wares 23,63 *>.40 '■ 

Drugs and medicine. 36,205.40 " 

Jewelry 31,28460 " 

Wool (yarns, cloth, clothing, etc.) 2J0.160.20 " 

Linen 14,210.10 " 

Machinery 12. '.n8.ru 

Manufactures of leather 12,690.40 

Stationery 56,104.60 " 

Pianos, organs, etc 21,11640 " 

Silks (yarns, cloth, ribbons, etc.) 89,746.20 " 

Hats 21,310 60 '■ 

Wine and liquors 1 12,190,20 ■• 



The imports from 



Italy . . amounted to 107,762.30 pesos. 

Spam " '• 142,738.55 " 

Belgium " ,; 67,017.35 '• 

South America " " 50, 1178. 0,1 " 

Mexico " " 46,081.75 " 

Austria " " 35,575 3.1 

Japan " " 35,072.60 " 

China " " 21,249 fc'n 

Switzerland " " 18,023.60 

Central America .. . " " 13,953.95 " 

The Netherlands .... " " 9,296 4 



The imports from the United Kingdom were valued at 
2,164,490.60 pesos, as follows: 



Cotton yarns and cloth 1,286 - 

Sundry articles 41,410.60 

Drugs and medicines 17,182.40 

Iron wares 98,134.60 

Woolen yarns and clothing 181,112.70 

Linen (stockings, yarns, cloth, etc. 1 18,416.30 

Tobacco and cigars 12,12660 

Roofing sheets 86,14 

Machinery 26,140.80 

Railways, telegraphs, electrio lights, machinerj ... 172,380 60 

Leathers and furs 16,806.40 

Saeks or bags 18,14530 

Silks, yarns, clothing, etc 84,106.70 



The imports from Germany to Guatemala amounted to 
2,012,269.40 pesos, as follows: 

57 



Spirits 16,964.30 p«*oi 

Barbed » ire 18,976.40 " 

Cotton yarns, etc 416,845.10 " 

Sundry articles 78,401.65 

Beer." 51,284.80 " 

rre«erres 43,208.10 " 

Glassware, china ware 58,136.80 " 

Coals 27,116.10 " 

Drugs and medicines 31,106.50 

Stearine 28,908.10 " 

Matches 45,180.60 " 

Ironware 110,008.10 " 

Iron in bars 22,214.10 " 

.tewelrv 88,190, 1 

Wool (varus, elotli, cMliing) 186,810.10 " 

Lin.n 18.160.sO •• 

Rcofinp sheets 51,230.20 " 

Timber and roofing materials 31,180. in " 

Materials for railways, telegrapbj 163,960.40 " 

Furniture ." 24,205.20 " 

Manufactures i'f leathers and furs 31,215.60 " 

Other articles 152,101 .70 " 

Stationery 50,107.30 '• 

Pianos 15,120.50 " 

Sacks 25,1114.50 " 

Silk (yarns, etc.) 32,104-10 " 

Hats 23,910.60 " 

Koofs 18,015.20 " 

Wines and liquors 28,100.80 ' ' 



The history of commerce in Guatemala is very simple. 

During the first years of the present century, toward the 
end of the Spanish domination, after many restrictions to trade 
had been removed and Central America had obtained leave to 
traffic direct with Mexico and other Spanish-American colo- 
nies, there were only thirty or thirty-five mercantile houses 
throughout Central America. Merchandise to the value of 
$1,000,000 was yearly imported from Spain through the Bay 
of Honduras. The returns were chiefly indigo, coin and bul- 
lion. There was some trade also with Peru and Cuba, and at 
the same time smuggling was carried on quite freely and 
largely through Belize and Curacao on the Atlantic coast, and 
by foreign whalers on the Pacific coast. 

After the separation from Spain there was, as Herbert 
Howe Bancroft says, little commerce for many years, until the 
construction of the railway across the Isthmus and the estab- 
lishment of a line of steamers making periodical visits to the 
several Central American ports on the Pacific coast afforded 
facilities for the development of both agriculture and foreign 
trade. Up to that time the several republics had established 
regular fairs, and subsequently they added to their number. 
These were attended by persons wishing to purchase national 

58 



or foreign products and manufactures. In Guatemala annual 
fairs were held in Esquipulas, where large quantities of mer- 
chandise were sold; in Rabinal, in Verapaz, of dry goods; in 
Mazatenango, of dry goods, cacao, cattle, etc.; in San Pedro 
Ayampue, in Solola, of dry goods, fruit and stock; in Quezalte- 
nango and Chimaltenango, of woolen manufactures; also in 
the capital of Guatemala, in Salcaja, Santa Cruz del Quiche, 
Jalapa, Santa Rosa and San Pedro Pinula. In regard to the 
development of the commerce of Guatemala since 1851, we 
refer to the above copied lists of importations and exporta- 
tions from 1851 to 1893. In order to understand the slow 
development of Guatemala, it should be mentioned that until 
the railroads were built the country was, to all intents and 
purposes, insular, and reached only by sea. The business cen- 
ters, being all in the interior, were accessible only by difficult 
roads and horse paths. Her people lived mainly by them- 
selves, and cared little for the outside world, and the outside 
world cared little for them. 

This situation was much changed with the production of 
coffee as an article of export, and it can be said that all mod- 
ern improvements and the present civilization are mostly due 
to coffee. With the accumulation of more wealth the standard 
of life was raised, and commerce rapidly increased. 



In 1ST" the first bank, the Banco Intemacional, was established with a 

capital of 1 ,400.000 peion 

And alter that the Banco Colombiano with a capital of 1 ,684,000 " 

The Banco de Occidents with a capital of 1,800,000 " 

The Banco de Guatemala with a capital of 1.500,000 ■" 

The Banco Agricola Uipotecario with a canital of 4,000,000 " 

And the Banco Americano with a capital of 600,000 " 



Credit is still dear in Guatemala, 10 to 12 per cent, inter- 
est being demanded; and it is generally alleged that the banks 
are not liberal in extending credits. Business is usually done 
on long credits. The merchants in the larger cities, with a 
capital of from 20,000 to 100,000 pesos, get usually a six, nine 
and twelve months' credit from European exporters, while the 
merchants of the interior, with a capital of from 4,000 to i_\- 
000 pesos, and who generally handle the cheaper articles of all 
kinds, in accordance with the wealth of their customers, chiefly 

59 



Indian agriculturists and laborers, get from the wholesale 
dealers in the larger cities a six to nine months' credit, paying 
an interest of from 7 to 10 per cent. As may be inferred, 
most of the merchants deal in general merchandise, and the 
articles chiefly purchased are canned goods, cheaper grades of 
clothing and dress goods, dry goods, hardware, crockery, 
glassware, farming implements, household and decorative fur- 
niture, kitchen utensils and household articles, boots and 
shoes, hats, carpets, stationery, flour, butter, lard, etc., machin- 
ery for coffee cleaning, sugar making, mining, sawmills; also 
pumps, etc. 

The larger houses are generally good and reliable. Many 
business houses are also proprietors of coffee plantations, and 
it happens that most of the imported merchandise is paid for 
with it. The commerce in coffee i» mostly in the hands of 
Germans or German-Americans, who have also invested a great 
deal of their capital in coffee and sugar plantations. Besides 
German and American houses there are a number of Spanish, 
Italian, French and native houses all through the country. 

Industries. The industries of Guatemala are still in their 
infancy. The principal ones are sugar factories, distilleries 
and establishments for cleaning and preparing coffee; then 
follow the industries mentioned in connection with the Indians, 
such as the weaving of maata (cotton cloth), of jerga (a coarse 
woolen stuff), cashmere, silk and cotton scarfs, huipiles, hats, 
ropes and cordage, pottery, baskets, artificial flowers, wax 
fruits, cigars, shoes, furniture, musical instruments, etc. 

There is probably a profitable field for the establishment 
of all kinds of factories, which undoubtedly would be encour- 
aged by the government. In order to get a concession or 
privilege for any enterprise, applications must be made to the 
government, and a contract to that effect signed by the appli- 
cant and the Minister of Fomento. In certain cases the ap- 
proval of the President of the Republic is sufficient for their 
validity, while some contracts, like railroad concessions, must 
r the sanction of the legislative assembly. 



60 



IX. 



HISTORICAL SKETCH AND POLITICAL ORGANIZATION. 



Spain governed Central America by the Audiencia Real 
-for about three centuries. There were several attempts at re- 
sistance and formal protests against her tyranny as early as 
1811, but it was not until 1821 that the representative of Spain, 
Gavino Gainza, surrendered his authority, when, on the 15th of 
September, independence was proclaimed. Soon after Mexico 
made an attempt to annex Central America to the ephemeral 
empire of Iturbide, but that domination was never acccepted. 
After that and up to the present a series of attempts have been 
made to confederate the Central American countries. In 1824 
a federal constitution establishing the Republic of Central 
America was proclaimed. The union lasted until 1839, when 
it was dissolved, notwithstanding the strenuous efforts of 
numerous patriots headed by General Morazan. 

Guatemala became, on the 17th of April, 1839, an inde- 
pendent republic, principally through the efforts of Rafael 
Carrera, who was proclaimed dictator on the 19th of March, 
1840, elected President on the nth of December, 1844, and 
President for life on the 21st of October, 1854. He governed 
the country in a successful manner until his death, which 
occurred on the 14th of April, 1865. After him General 
Vicente Cerna was elected President, and followed the policy 
of Carrera. He was overthrown in 1871 by the Liberal party, 
led by General Miguel Garcia Granados. 

6r 



In 1873 he was succeeded by General J. Rufino Barrios, 
whose administration was very successful. He was killed in. 
1885 at the battle of Chalchuapa while attempting to establish 
by force a Central American union. From 1886 to 1892 
General M. L. Barillas was President, followed by General J. 
M. Reyna Barrios who, after bringing- his country into a heavy 
financial and economic as well as political crisis, fell at the 
hands of a murderer, on February 8th, 1898. The actual pro- 
visional President is the Licenciate, M. E. Cabrera. 

Political organization. Guatemala is governed by a 
constitution sanctioned by the Constituent Assembly of 1879 
and amended in 1885. Personal liberty is guaranteed by this 
code to the fullest extent, and no restrictions of any kind are 
placed upon the exercise of freedom of conscience and opinion. 
Public authorities are chosen by universal suffrage. Instruc- 
tion at the public schools is free, and attendance upon them is 
compulsory. Military service is likewise obligatory, but ex- 
emption from it may be obtained only by paying a certain 
amount of money. 

Foreigners are not obliged to pay any special imposts, or 
forced loans, nor are they liable to military service or accept- 
ance of public employment. Civil marriage is established in 
the country, and public registries of property, births and deaths 
and of the social state of persons are kept by public function- 
aries. 

The legislative, executive and judicial jurisdictions con- 
stitute the government of the country. The legislative power 
is vested in a House or Assembly, renewed every two years 
by halves. This Assembly appoints its own President, Vice- 
President and Secretaries. It meets on the 1st of March and 
its sessions last two months, but they may be extended for 
another thirty days. ( Congress may also be summoned to extra 
sessions, whenever urgent public business requires it. 

ecutive power is vested in a President who is elected 
directly by the people. His term of office runs for six years, 
and he is not eligible to succeed himself. He is assisted by 
the secretaries of six departments, who in some cases have 
a consolidated responsibility. These Secretaries are in charge 
of the Departments of Foreign Affairs, Interior Affairs and 



Justice, Public Works, War, the Treasury, and Public Instruc- 
tion. 

The Judiciary is composed of a Chief-Justice and a Su- 
preme Court, three Appellate Courts in the Capital, one in 
Quezaltenango and another in Jalapa, each one having' its 
own Attorney-General. There are five courts of the first 
instance in Guatemala, three in Quezaltenango, two in San 
Marcos and one in each of the remaining nineteen Depart- 
ments. In each municipality there is a Justice of the Peace. 

The Council of State is an auxiliary body, for the advice 
of which the Government may call. It is formed of nine mem- 
bers, of five elected by the Assembly, and of four appointed 
by the Executive. 

The Assembly appoints a permanent commission, which 
attends to all matters prescribed by the law, when the Assem- 
bly is not in session. 

Each municipal territory established by law is adminis- 
tered by a council or corporation. 

The government of each Department is exercised by a 
political chief, who is at the same time the commander of the 
local forces. 

After the Liberal successes of 1871 the old codes were 
displaced by others more in accordance with the requirements 
of modern times. The code of civil and criminal procedure, 
and also the fiscal, military and commercial codes have been 
sanctioned and promulgated. 

A police force was established years ago in Guatemala, 
Quezaltenango, Chiquimula, La Antigua, Jalapa, Amatitlan, 
Totonicapan and Retalhuleu. It is also intended to establish 
a force of rural guards for the highways. 

The army is composed of about 500 commanding offi- 
cers, 3,263 officers and 53,903 men. 



63